Manual of Yacht and Boat Sailing and
(11th and final edition, 1913)
D. - E.
- D.-- The capital letter D is used by
naval architects to denote the displacement or
total weight of the yacht and her equipment,
generally expressed in pounds or tons.
- d.-- The italic letter d is used to denote the
difference between the skin girth and the chain
girth (approximately amidships) : measured with a
tape and expressed in linear measurement generally
in feet and decimal feet, or in metres. Hence a big
bodied vessel is said to have "a small d
measurement" and a fine bodied vessel a "large d
measurement.' A bulb keeled vessel thus has "large
- d Tax.-- A system of measurement of yachts by
which the d is taxed and by which full bodied
vessels are rated less than fine bodied vessels,
thus inducing the designer to evolve a full bodied
yacht suitable for cabin accommodation. The system
was devised by Mr Alfred Benzon, a Danish
- Dagger Centre-plate.-- See "Centre-plate."
- Dagger Knee.-- A piece of timber crossing the
- Dandy.-- A cutter rigged vessel with lug mizen
aft set on a jigger-mast.
- Darning the Water.-- When a vessel keeps
sailing backwards and forwards, as before a bar
harbour or pier, waiting for water or orders,
- Davit Guys.-- The stays or ropes used to keep
the davits steady.
- Davits.-- Strong iron stanchions with arms used
for hoisting boats, &c
- Dead Calm.-- Without a breath of wind.
- Deaden-her-way.-- To stop a vessel's way by
backing and filling, or by hauling a sail aback, or
by yawing her about with the helm, &c.
- Dead Eye.-- A circular block, with three holes
in it (crow-foot fashion) without sheaves, formerly
used to reeve the lanyards through for setting up
- Dead Flat.-- The midship section. The term is
applied to the middle flat of a ship, where she
gets no broader and no narrower ; that is, where
the cross sections for some distance amidships are
of the same size and form thus the side will
present a "dead flat" for some distance; unusual in
- Dead Lights .-- Strong shutters made to fit the
outside of cabin windows-closed in bad weather. In
yachts small circular lights are generally fitted
with iron shutters inside or outside.
- Dead on End.-- Said of the wind, when it blows
straight down the course a vessel wishes to make.
(See "Nose-ender," "Muzzler.")
- Dead Reckoning.-- The calculation of a ship's
position by the log, the courses she has made, lee
way, set of currents, &c without an
- Dead Rise.-- The approach the floor timbers of
a vessel makes to a vertical. In the case of ships,
the frames in the after body are called the
dead-risings, because they only rise from the keel
at a sharp angle, all the middle frames starting
out nearly horizontally from the keel. A yacht is
said to have considerable dead rise on a very
rising floor, when she is more or less of the V
form, but really vessels of the T form have the
greatest dead rise, as the heels of the floors
forming the framing to take the garboards do rise
- Dead Water.-- The water in a vessel's wake,
close to her sternpost, that follows the ship.
- Dead Weight.-- Concentrated weight in a
vessel's pattern, such as a heavy cargo of ore or
- Dead Wood.-- The solid wood worked on top of
the keel forward and aft.
- Decimal Equivalents.--
- Deck.-- The platforms supported on the beams of
ships. The old three deckers had upper deck, main
deck, middle deck, lower deck, and orlop deck, no
guns being carried on the latter. Below the orlop
deck were the hold platforms, or decks. Yachts
usually are said to have only one deck, i.e. the
upper deck open to the sky; some large yachts,
however, have a lower deck, laid and caulked.
Smaller yachts have platform beams upon which the
platform rests. The platform is the cabin floor or
- Deck Caulking and Stopping.-- See "Marine
- Deck, to whiten.-- Make a mixture of 1-lb.
oxalic acid to 1 gallon of water. Damp the deck
with this and wash off.
- Deep Sea Lead (pronounced "dipsey lead").-- A
lead of 28-lb. weight attached to a line of 200
fathoms. Now, automatically recording machines are
generally used for deep sea soundings. (See
- Delivery.-- The quarter wash of a vessel. A
yacht is said to have a good delivery if on passing
through the water no large waves are raised at and
about the quarters; she is then said to leave the
water clean, to have a clean wake, clean delivery,
or to run the water very clean aft; to have a sweet
- Demurrage.-- Compensation paid to the owner of
a ship when she has been detained longer than
reasonable by a freighter or other person at a
- Depth, Moulded.-- The terms used in ship and
yacht building and relating to the depth of vessels
are numerous and occasionally confusing. For
instance, there is draught of water aft and draught
of water forward, extreme draught and mean draught.
In a merchant ship, draught aft and extreme draught
would most likely be the same, but in many yachts,
the extreme draught is amidships, or nearly so, and
the draught at the sternpost is frequently less
than the extreme draught. The draught forward in
most sailing yachts would be a purely fanciful
quantity, on account of there being no straight
length of keel forward of amidships to measure the
draught from. Beyond this, formerly depth or depth
of immersion was used to denote draught; and then
there was moulded depth, that is the depth from the
load line to the rabbet of the keel ; after this
came depth of hold, which in a man of war meant
depth from the lower deck, or orlop deck, to the
ceiling above the kelsons, and in a merchant or
carrying ship, or yacht, the depth from the upper
- The term "moulded depth" is now never applied
to the depth of immersion, and when the term is
used it is always understood to mean the depth as
defined by Lloyd's, as follows: "The moulded depth
of an iron or steel vessel is the perpendicular
depth taken from the top of the upper deck beam at
the centre at the middle of the length of the
vessel to the top of the floors, except in spar and
awning deck vessels, in which the depth is measured
from the top of the main deck beam. In wooden and
composite vessels the moulded depth is also taken
to be the perpendicular depth from the top of the
upper deck beam at the centre of the vessel
amidships to the top of the floor frame." It will
be seen that, even with this excellent definition
of moulded depth, it may mean a great many things
in the case of yachts with very hollow floors and
great dead rise, or in the case of yachts with box
keels the same as Vanduara, Galatea, and Wendur
have. However, there is one definite point to start
from in all cases, and that is the "top of the
upper deck beam at the centre."
- Depth of a Yacht, to Measure.-- Very frequently
it is necessary to know accurately the external
depth of a yacht from rail to keel, or her draught
from load line to keel. The following simple plan
is a ready means of obtaining such depth and
- To obtain the depth take a straight-edged bar
of wood (see e e, Fig. 35) which will be placed
across the rail, at right angles to the keel. A
small chain, f f, will be passed under the bottom
of the yacht, and one end will be made fast on the
bar at g, so that the chain just touches the bilge;
the chain will be drawn tight, and the other end
made fast to bar at h. The distance g h must be
accurately measured on the bar, as also, when
removed, must the length of the chain which passed
from g under the yacht to h. (To obtain the points
for the measurement of the chain, it would be found
convenient to fasten a small piece of cord or yarn
at the points g and h, immediately under the bar,
before the chain is cast off.)
- Having obtained these measurements, it will be
an easy matter to find the depth i j. The distance
g h can be laid off to scale, divided in the centre
by a perpendicular, i j: half the length of the
chain will then be laid off from g and It to
intersect the perpendicular, as at j; the distance
from i to j on the bar, measured by the scale, will
be the depth required. The draught of water of the
yacht will of course be found by subtracting her
height out of water, from load line to rail, at the
points where the depth was taken. If no scale be at
hand, the depth can readily be found by
calculation. Take half the length g h, which
call k l (Fig. 35), and half the length of
the chain, which call k m; subtract l
from k m; multiply the remainder by the sum
of k m and k l added together; the
square root of the product will be the required
depth. Expressed in algebraic language:
- Say k m is 10ft., added to k l
7ft., make 17ft. ; next 7 subtracted from 10 leave
3 and 3 multiplied by 17 make 51. The square root
of 51 is 7.1, which would be the required depth.
The mean draught would be found by taking the
actual draught at several (say 4) equidistant
intervals, commencing at the heel of the sternpost
and ending at the stem; add these draughts
together, and divide the sum by the number of
measurements taken, including those at stem and
sternpost. If the forefoot is very much rounded
away, the measurement at the stem will be 0, but in
counting the number of measurements, that for the
stem must be included. The Barrow Corinthian Yacht
Club formerly included mean depth in their tonnage
rule, and adopted, on the suggestion of Mr. R. S.
White, the following plan for obtaining depth at
any point without calculation. (See Fig. 36.)
- A is the keel batten, graduated from centre, in
feet and tenths, with slots marked C, at each end,
to slide the side or depth battens to the exact
beam of yacht.
- B B. Side or depth battens, graduated at upper
part in feet and tenths from top of keel batten,
and secured to keel batten with thumbscrews marked
- The manner of working is as follows:
- Having obtained exact beam of yacht, set the
depth battens B B at this distance apart on keel
batten A, by means of thumbscrews D tightly screwed
up. Dip the keel batten under keel until opposite
marks on gunwale, where depth is required to be
taken; then bring it close up to keel, and take
readings off depth battens B B, until they
correspond on each side--this being depth of yacht,
keel to gunwale, in vertical line, as shown in
- If the measurements have to be taken in a
tideway, the batten A must be kept close up to keel
to prevent its driving aft.
- Depth of Hold.--In a single-deck vessel, the
height between the kelson and deck.
- Derelict.-- A vessel abandoned at sea. It is
said that an owner's rights are not also abandoned
if any live animal be left and found on board.
- Derrick.--A kind of crane.
- Deviation.-- A movement of the compass needle
due to local attraction, principally met with in
iron or composite ships, and distinct from
- Dhow.-- A large Arab vessel, usually
- Diagonal Braces.-- Strengthening straps of iron
that cross the frames of a vessel diagonally.
- Diagonal Lines.--Lines which cross the sections
of a vessel shown in the body plan, in a diagonal
direction with the middle vertical line.
- Diameter of Circle.-- Circumference multiplied
- Diminishing Strakes.--The strakes immediately
above and below wales being the thickness of the
wale on one edge, and diminishing to the thickness
of the plank or' the other.
- Dinghy.--A small boat of Bombay, with a settee
sail. Also a small skiff, or punt, carried by
yachts. (See "Portable Dinghy.")
- Dinghy-man.--The man who has charge of the
dinghy of a yacht, whose duty it is to go on shore
on errands, &c.
- Dip.--The inclination the compass needle makes
towards the earth in high latitudes.
- Dip the Ensign, To.--To lower the ensign as a
salute, or token of respect. (See "Dipping the
- Dipping Lug Sail.-- A sail hoisted by a halyard
and mast hoop traveler. The sail is set to leeward
of the mast, and the tack is usually fast to the
stem or on the weather bow. In tacking or gybing
the sail has to be lowered and the yard shifted to
the other side of the mast. A plan has been
proposed to perform this dipping by the aid of a
topping and tripping line instead of by lowering
the sail (see the sketch Fig. 37); but the balance
lug, which requires no dipping whatsoever in
tacking, is to be preferred to the best dipping
arrangement. (See "Penzance Luggers'' and "Split
- FIG 37
- Dipping the Ensign and Burgee.--
- The ensign is lowered or dipped as a means of
saluting a commodore, &c., or member of a club.
The junior member should be the first to dip.
Sometimes, if no ensign is flying, the burgee is
dipped ; but this strictly is contrary to the
etiquette of the Royal Navy. It is usual to" dip"
on passing a man-of-war or Royal yacht. A Royal
yacht never answers the salute by dipping her
ensign. Strictly it is etiquette for the blue
ensign to dip to the white ; and red to the blue or
- A club burgee. being a personal flag, is
usually lowered half mast high in the case of death
as well as the ensign. (See" Ensign," "Etiquette,"
- Discharge Ticket.--
- A formal document given to seamen when they are
- Dismantled.-- Unrigged: without sails or
- Dismasted.-- When a vessel loses her mast by
violence or accident.
- The quantity or weight of water a vessel
displaces, which, in weight, is always equal to the
total of her own weight, with everything on board.
- Displacement per inch of immersion.--
- It is often necessary to now how much weight
would have to be put into a yacht to sink her an
inch or more deeper in the water or lighten her to
a similar extent. Roughly, this can be ascertained
by the following rule : Multiply the length on the
load line by the breadth on the load line and
divide the product by 600.
- The quotient will be the weight in tons or
fractions of a ton. This rule would not hold good
if the yacht were lightened more than three or four
inches or deepened to that extent. The rule is
based on the assumption that the area of the load
line is .7 of the circumscribing parallelogram.
That is to say, the length and breadth multiplied
together and again multiplied by .7 will
(approximately) give the area of load line. Divide
this product by 12, and the area is reduced to
cubic feet, and divide again by 35 and the answer
will be given in tons or fractions of a ton. By
this rough rule the displacement per inch at any
part of the hull of the vessel (if the measurements
are taken at the part) can be found approximately
( LxBx0.7/ (12x35)) = ( LxB/600 )
- Powdered colour mixed in strong glue size and
applied hot. Sometimes the part to be covered is
first coated with lime whitewash. A yellow
distemper for funnels is thus made: 6lb. glue made
into size and whilst hot added to 2/3 cwt. yellow
ochre, 1/3cwt. whiting, reduced to proper
consistency by warm water.
- The portions of a fleet ; as the starboard
port, and centre divisions, the admiral in command
always occupying the centre division. Prior to
1856, there were red, white and blue divisions, but
now, as only the white or St. George's ensign is
recognised, the divisions by colour have been done
away with. (See "Admiral.")
- A general name for a place to receive ships for
repair or cleaning A ship is said to dock herself
when placed in a soft tidal bed of mud (t she
buries herself in it more or less. A dry dock is a
basin into which a ship is floated and the gates
closed upon her ; the water is then pumped out and
the ship left dry, supported on a framework and by
- Places where ships are built ; usually,
however, confined to Government yards.
- Dog Shores.-- Pieces of timber used in
- Dog Vane.--
- A light vane made of bunting, silk, or
feathers, to show the direction of the wind, and
sometimes put on the weather rail or topsail
- Dog Watches.--
- The divided watch between four and eight in the
evening ; thus the first dog watch is from four to
six, and the second from six to eight. (See
- The state of being becalmed. Parts of the ocean
where calms are prevalent.
- Dolphins.-- Stout timbers or stone pillars
placed on wharfs to make fast warps to.
- Dolphin Striker.--
- The perpendicular spar under the bowsprit end
by which more spread is given to the stay of the
jib-boom. In a modern yacht the dolphin striker is
a steel strut or spreader fitting into a socket in
the stem, and it acts as a spreader to the bobstay.
(See "Spreader" and "Strut.")
- A flat-bottomed deep boat much used by American
fishing schooners. (See Fig. 38.) The American
schooner Ingomar in 1904 carried a number of dorys
on deck in her passage across the Atlantic, and the
late Captain Charles Barr considered them good sea
boats, but said that Scandinavian and American
sailors were more accustomed to them and could
handle them better than English crews.
- Captain Barr considered that every sailing
yacht making an ocean passage should have ample
boat accommodation for all persons on board, and by
means of dorys this could easily be effected.
- The dory is an awkward-looking flat bottomed
boat, and some of the schooners carry as many as a
dozen of them. They are of the proportions of an
English dinghy, and of different sizes, so that
several stow one within the other. They are of
light construction, and are easily lifted by a rope
becket at bow and stern. The sternmost becket is
shown hi the engraving, also the score for sculling
- When men sit on the same thwart to row oars
from different sides of a boat. Double-banked
frigates were two deckers, with the upper deck
- Double Block.-- A block with twin sheaves.
- Double Dutch.-- - confused way of speaking.
(See "Preventive Man.")
- Double Gimbals.-- See "Gimbals."
- Doubling Plank.-- To put one thickness of plank
over the other.
- Douse or Dowse.--
- To lower away suddenly, to take in a sail
suddenly. "Dowse the glim." to pint out a
- Dove-tail Plates.-- Plates in form like a
- A hard wood or metal pin used for connecting
timber or the edges of plank.
- Downhaul.-- A rope used for hauling sails
- Down Helm.-- An order to put the helm to
leeward and cause the vessel to luff.
- Down Oars.--
- The order given for the crew of a boat to let
fall their oars after having them on end in the
boat. See "Let Fall" and "Give Way."
- Down Wind.--
- Sailing in the direction of or with the wind -
before the wind ; with tine wind astern.
- Down Wind Down Sea.--
- The sea will subside when the wind does ; or
the sea will go down when the wind Is blowing the
same direction as a tidal current, &c.
- Drag.-- The increased draught of water aft
compared with the draught forward.
- Drag, To.-- To scrape the bottom; to search the
bottom with grapnels.
- Draught of Water.--
- The depth of a vessel to the extreme underside
of the keel measured frem the load water line.
- A sail is said to draw when it is filled by the
wind. To let draw is to ease up the weather sheet
of a sail after it has been hauled to windward,
arid trim the lee sheet aft.
- Draw her to.--
- In sailing large to bring a vessel closer to
- To dress ship is to hoist flags from deck to
truck; or from bowsprit end to truck and taffrail.
Sometimes referred to as dressed "rainbow
- To dress copper is to lay or smooth down
wrinkles by going over it with a flat piece of hard
wood and a hammer.
- Drift.-- To float about with the tide or
- Drift.-- The distance between two blocks of a
tackle ; or the two parts of one thing.
- In a calm in the case of being out of sight of
land. or in a dense fog. but not out of soundings,
if it is desired to know the direction of the
current or tide, (drop a pig of ballast or lead
line overboard with enough line out to just reach
the bottom. Then watch the direction in which it
- Drive.-- To move to leeward by the force of the
wind or drive without control.
- Dry rot.-- The decay timber is subject to often
through imperfect ventilation.
- Light canvas of which boat sails and balloon
sails are made. To duck is to dive under water
- A sailor's white suit of duck. "They are all
black ducks," an expression of derision used by
yacht hands on the East coast towards their mates
if they sit err deck with their heads up" when
racing, instead of lying flat on the weather rail
in the orthodox fashion.
- A sailor's facetious way of pronouncing dough,
hence plum duff for plum pudding. Duff is sometimes
aplied to "soft tack ' or fresh bread as distinct
- Dumb Cleat.-- A thumb cleat.
- A nail used in fastening plank to the timbers,
as distinguished from a through-bolt.
- Dungaree or Dongaree.--
- A blue linen or cotton. cloth in use in India
now much used for for rough. or working suits given
to yacht sailors.
- Loose material such as cork. bamboo, shavings,
ferns, coir &c., used to jam in between a heavy
cargo such as casks, iron, &c.
- Dynamometer.-- An instrument to measure
- Ropes used to fasten the corners of the heads
of sails to the yards, by the cringles. The upper
corners of sails are frequently termed earings.
(See "Reef Earings.")
- Ears of a Bolt.--
- The lugs or upper projections of a bolt with a
score in it, into which another part is fitted and
held by a through pin so as to form a joint like
that of a gooseneck.
- Ease Away.--
- The order to slacken a rope, &c.; to ease
off a sheet, to ease up a sheet, are synonymous
terms, and mean to slacken. (See "Check.")
- Ease the Helm.--
- The order given when sailing against a head sea
to ease the weather helm, and by luffing meet the
sea bow on, and at the same time deaden the ship's
way so that the sea and ship meet less violently.
Generally to put the helm amidship, or more
amidship after it has been put to port or
- Eating a Vessel out of the Wind.--
- When two vessels are sailing in company, and if
one soaks or settles out to windward of the other
she is said to eat her out of the wind. In reality,
to make less leeway.
- Eating to Windward.--
- A vessel is said to eat to windward when she,
apparently, soaks out to windward of her wake.
- Ebb.-- The receding of the tide.
- Eddy.-- Water or currents of air apparently
moving in circles.
- Edge Away.-- To gradually keep a vessel more
off a wind after sailing close hauled.
- Edge Down on a Vessel.--
- To bear away towards a vessel to leeward, so as
to approach her in an oblique direction.
- End for End.-- To shift a spar, rope, &c.,
by reversing the direction of the ends.
- End On.--
- Said of vessel when she has an object bearing
in a line with the keel, directly ahead of the how.
On approaching a mark or buoy it is said to be end
on if it is directly ahead of the vessel, the
bowsprit will then point to the object, hence it is
sometimes said that an object is "right on for the
- A flag flown as a distinguishing mark of
nationality. The red ensign, with "Union Jack" in
the upper corner of the hoist, is the English
national flag, and flown by merchantmen by law ;
but the ensign of the Royal Navy is white with red
St. George's cross in it besides the Jack in the
corner: this is called "St. George's ensign." Prior
to 1856 the red (highest in rank), white, and blue
ensigns were used in the Royal Navy, and there were
Admirals of the Red, Admirals of the White, and
Admirals of the Blue; and there were Vice and Rear
Admirals of the red, white, and blue. A fleet was
divided into red, white, and blue divisions,
according to the rank of the Admirals who
commanded. In 1855 the red ensign was allotted to
the British Mercantile Marine, the blue ensign to
the Royal Naval Reserve, and the white ensign to
the Royal Navy. However, the white and blue ensigns
had always been reserved for the exclusive use of
H.M.'s navy, and other vessels could not use either
without an Admiralty warrant.
- In the Royal Navy it was etiquette, when an
Admiral was on board his ship, to fly the white
ensign from the main truck, Vice-Admiral from
the fore truck, and Rear-Admiral mizen truck.
Admirals now fly St. George's Jack (which see)
from the main, fore. or mizen, according to
rank. A Union Jack is carried at the stem head
or bowsprit end (all ships of the Royal Navy now
so carry a Jack). When a council of war is being
held on board a flagship, the white ensign is
displayed in the main, fore, or mizen shrouds,
according to the rank of the Admiral. If there
is to be an execution after a court martial, the
white ensign is hoisted on the main, fore, or
mizen yard arm. Ships of the Royal Navy at the
approach of Royalty, or whilst saluting, "dress"
ship, by hoisting St. George's ensigns at the
fore, main, and mizen trucks.
- By the Merchant Shipping (Colours) Act,
1889, it is enjoined that "a ship belonging to
any subject of Her Majesty shall, on a signal
being made to her by one of Her Majesty's ships,
and on entering or leaving any foreign port,
and, if of 50 tons gross tonnage or upwards,
shall also, on entering or leaving any British
port, hoist the proper national colours, or, in
default, incur a penalty not exceeding
100£." The term "proper national colours
"for all ships is defined as the red ensign,
"except in the case of Her Majesty's ships or
boats, or in the case of any other ship or boat
for the time being allowed to wear any other
national colours in pursuance of a warrant from
Her Majesty or from the Admiralty." Thus, if a
yacht is allowed to fly the blue or white ensign
as a proper national colour, her owner may incur
a penalty every time he enters or leaves a
British port without flying such blue or white
- If an ensign other than the red be flown by
any vessel without a warrant from the Admiralty,
a penalty of 500£. may be inflicted, and
any Custom House or Consular officer or officer
in the Royal Navy on full pay may hoard the
vessel and seize the flag. Although the red
ensign has been assigned to the mercantile
marine, no device can be put in it other than
the Jack without the permission of the
- The jurisdiction of the Admiralty only
extends to flags flown afloat, end any ensign or
flag can be hoisted on flagstaffs on shore.
- When a warrant is granted to a club to fly
the white, blue, or the red ensign with a
device, this warrant does not of itself entitle
a member of the club to fly either ensign on
board his yacht; before he can legally do so he
must also obtain a warrant from the Admiralty
through the club secretary. A warrant must be
obtained for each club be belongs to, if he
desires to fly the flags of the clubs. When the
yacht is disposed of, the warrants must be
returned through the club secretary to the
Admiralty, and if the owner obtains a new yacht
he must get fresh warrants.
- Prior to 1858 the Royal Western Yacht Club
of Ireland flew the white ensign with a wreath
of shamrock in it. In 1847, the privilege of
flying the white ensign was accorded to the
Royal St. George's Yacht Club, Kingstown, but
was afterwards rescinded upon a representation
by the Royal Yacht Squadron that that club by
its warrant of 1829 (prior to 1829, the R.Y.S.
flew the red ensign)--had the exclusive
privilege of flying the white ensign. In 1853 an
application was made in Parliament to know if
the R.Y.S. had that exclusive privilege. The
first Lord of the Admiralty said it had not,
inasmuch as the privilege had also been extended
to the Royal Western of Ireland in 1832, and was
still enjoyed by that club. (But it does not
appear that the Royal Western ever applied for a
separate warrant for a yacht to fly the white
ensign.) In 1858 the Royal St. George's Yacht
Club (also the Holyhead) again applied for
permission to fly the white ensign; the
permission was not granted, and the Admiralty
informed the Royal Western that they were no
longer to use it; on making search at the
Admiralty, it was found that in 1842 a decision
was come to that no warrant should be issued to
fly the white ensign to any club besides the
Royal Yacht Squadron; and the clubs affected by
the decision were informed of it accordingly,
but the Royal Western of Ireland was not
interfered with, because up to that time no
application for separate warrants from the club
for yachts to fly the ensign had been received;
and further, in 1853, the Royal Western obtained
permission to continue to use the ensign.
- The decision made in 1842 was at the
instance of Lord Yarborough (commodore of the
R.Y.S.). He then set no special value on the
white ensign except that he wished it to be
confined to the yachts of the R.Y.S. to
distinguish them from the yachts of other
- Accordingly copies of the Admiralty minute
were sent to the clubs using the white ensign
(Royal Thames, Royal Southern, Royal Western of
England, Royal Eastern, Holyhead, Wharncliffe,
and Gibraltar), but, oddly enough, for the
reason already stated, the Royal Western of
Ireland, by an oversight, was omitted, and that
club continued to use the ensign until the
mistake was recognised by the Admiralty in
- At that date the white ensign was adopted as
the sole flag of the Royal Navy, and naturally
the Admiralty were obliged to be more particular
in granting warrants for flying it than they
were in 1842; however, the Royal Yacht Squadron,
which had always been under the special
patronage of the Royal family, was considered
worthy of the privilege. The privilege to fly it
is cherished and coveted, and other
distinguished yachting nations like
Austria-Hungary, Italy, Spain, Denmark,
Portugal, Sweden, Norway, and France have each
given one yacht club the privilege of flying the
naval flag of the country. A notable exception
is Germany, although the Emperor is Commodore of
the German Imperial Yacht Club. In America, as
in France, the naval colours are the same as
those of the mercantile marine, and a special
ensign has been accorded to yacht clubs -- all
using the same and enjoying the same privileges.
In Russia this has also been done, the yacht
club ensign being something like our white, but
with blue instead of red cross.
- Our Admiralty refuse to allow any imitation
ensigns, and this is quite right. Some years ago
the Royal Cork Yacht Club applied for permission
to use a green ensign, on the plea that the red,
white, and blue were already appropriated by
other clubs. The Admiralty replied they might
(at that time) choose which of the three
national ensigns they pleased, but the creation
of a new colour could not be sanctioned. (See
"Admiralty Warrants," "Royal and Recognised
Clubs," "Burgee," "Dipping the Ensign,"
- Ensign for Hired Transports.--
- The blue ensign with Admiralty anchor (yellow)
in the fly.
- Ensign, Hoisting of.--
- Ensigns and burgees are hoisted every morning
at eight o'clock (9 AM from September 30 to March
31), and hauled down at sunset. It is a slovenly
habit to hoist and haul down colours at irregular
hours. At sea it is only usual to hoist colours
when passing another vessel.
- Ensign of Naval Reserve.-- The blue
- Ensign of the Colonies.-- The blue ensign with
arms or badge of colony in it.
- Ensign of the Customs.-- -The blue ensign with
crown in fly.
- The fore part of a vessel, the bow. A good
entrance into the water means a long well-formed
- Entrance Money.--
- The money demanded by clubs from yacht owners,
who enter their vessels for match sailing at
- Entry.-- The record that a yacht is engaged for
a particular match.
- The complete outfit of a vessel including
everything used in her handling, working, and
accommodation. The inventory comprises the
- A kind of yacht of the twelfth century.
According to Diez, "Dictionary of the Romance
Languages," the word is old French, esneque or
esneche, "a sharp prowed ship."
- See "Saluting," "Ensign," "Boats," "Burgee,"
"Commodore," "Admiralty Warrants," &c.
- Even Keel.--
- Said of a vessel when she is not heeled either
to port or starboard, also when her keel is
horizontal, that is when she is so trimmed that her
draught forward is the same as aft.
- Every Stitch of Canvas Set.-- When all
available canvas that will draw is set.
- Extreme Breadth.--
- The greatest breadth of a vessel from the
outside of the plank on one side to the outside of
the plank on the other side, wales and doubling
planks being included and measured in the
- Eye Bolt.-- See "Bolts."
- Eyelet Holes.--
- Small holes worked in sails for lacings,
&c., to be rove through.
- Eyes of Her.--
- The extreme fore end of the ship near the hawse
pipes, which are the "eyes of her."
- Eyes of the Rigging.--
- The loops spliced into the ends of shrouds to
go over the mast, and for the rigging screws.
- Eye Splice.-- The end of a rope turned in so as
to form an eye.
© 2000 Craig O'Donnell
May not be reproduced without my permission.
Go scan your own damn dictionary.