Manual of Yacht and Boat Sailing and
(11th and final edition, 1913)
- To speak to a ship at sea by signals or
otherwise. To attract the attention of a ship by
singing out "Ship ahoy!" or "Neptune ahoy." To
"hail from" a locality is to belong to a particular
place by birthright.
- Half-breadth Plan.--
- A drawing showing the horizontal sections or
waterlines of a vessel by halves.
- The width of horizontal sections at particular
points; also half-breadths on diagonal lines.
- Hall-mast High.--
- Hoisting a burgee or ensign only halfway up as
a mark of respect to a person who has recently
- Halyards or Halliards.-- Ropes for hauling up
sails, yards, &c., by.
- Hammock.-- A canvas bed swung to the deck
- Hand.-- To hand a sail is to stow, furl, or
take in; hence a sail is said to be "handed" when
either of these operations has been performed.
- Hand.-- A man. A member of a ship's crew.
- Handing a Sail.-- To hand a sail is to stow it
or take it in.
- Hand Lead.-- See "Lead."
- Handle Her.--
- The act of controlling the movements of a
vessel. An admonition to the crew to be smart in
working the sheets in tacking or gybing. Also a
steamboat master is said to "handle" his vessel in
bringing her alongside a wharf. pier, &c.
- Hand Masts.--
- Certain spars of Riga fir the girth of which is
expressed in hands of 4in. Thus a mast which was
6-1/2 hands, or 6-1/2 x "4in." in circumference
would be 26in. in girth, or about 8-1/2 in. in
diameter. (The circumference is the diameter
multiplied by 3.1416.)
- Hand over Fist.-- See "Hand over Hand."
- Hand over Hand.--
- Hauling on a rope by one hand at a time and
passing one hand rapidly over the other to haul. A
very rapid way of hauling, hence anything done
rapidly is said to be done "hand over hand."
- Hand Sail.-- See "Sailing on Skates." .
- Steadily; with care. Not too fast nor yet too
slow, but with great care; cleverly. As "Lower away
handsomely." In easing up a sheet, if the man is
likely to let it fly, the master or mate will sing
out, "Handsomely there !" meaning that the man is
to ease up the sheet carefully, not letting too
much run out, nor yet letting it come up with a
jerk, nor yet allowing it to run away with
- Handspike.-- A bar of wood, used as a
- Hand Taut.--
- As tight or taut as a rope can be got by the
hand without swigging upon it.
- A vessel is said to be handy when she answers
her helm quickly, and will turn in a small circle,
or go from one tack to the other quickly.
- Handy Billy.--
- A watch tackle kept on deck for general use to
get a pull on whatever is required, such as sheets,
tacks, or halyards.
- To lean towards. To hang to windward is to make
but little leeway. "Hang on here!" an order for men
to assist in hauling.
- Hanging Compass.--
- A compass suspended under the beams with the
face of the card downwards; termed also a "Telltale
- Hanging Knee.--
- Knees that help keep the beams and frame
together ; one arm is bolted to the under side of a
beam, the other to the frame.
- Hank for Hank.-- Slang for "tack for
- Rings or hooks made of rope, wood, or iron for
fastening the luff of sails to stays. Iron rings
are usually used for the stay foresail; iron spring
hooks for the balloon foresail and jib
- Various ingenious contrivances have been
invented for securing sails to stays, &c., and
Ramsay's patent keys are much used. Mr. Delap has
adapted these for yacht purposes,
- FIG 46.
- FIG 47.
- and the first shown (Fig. 46) is for the fore
staysail, the circular part travelling on the stay.
Fig. 47 is for mast hoop attachments. The luff of
the sail would be passed into the jaws, and then
the key pushed through an eyelet hole and
- Fig. 48 is a sheet shackle to supersede the
usual toggle. The form of the head of the key
precludes the possibility of its fouling any
- Mr. J. W. Collins, writing on the rig of
fishing boats, says that a method adopted by the
American fishermen for bending and unbending their
riding sails would, doubtless, be well suited for
the fore-and-aft-rigged English drift net boats.
The "riding sail" referred to is a small
three-cornered sail, which is bent to the mainmast
when a schooner is riding at anchor, to keep her
steady and head to the wind. The sail is set
temporarily, and it is therefore desirable that the
arrangements may be such that it can be bent or
unbent with as little delay as possible. For this
purpose ordinary mast hoops are used; but about
one-quarter of their length (where they are joined
together) is sawed out, leaving square ends, to
each of which is fastened an iron hook.
- Fig. 49 shows how the hoops are fitted, and
Fig. 50 shows how the thimble toggles are attached
to the luff of the sail at regular intervals. The
thimbles are slipped over the hooks on the ends of
the hoops. The sail can be bent almost as fast as
it can be hoisted.
- Harbour Master.--
- An officer whose duty it is to see that vessels
are properly berthed and moored in harbours. His
authority cannot be disputed with impunity, as, in
nine cases out of ten, if a dispute with a harbour
master gets into court the decision will be for the
- FIG. 48.
- Harbour Watch.--
- The watch kept on board a vessel at night when
she is riding to an anchor in harbour; the anchor
- A landing place, usually made of gravel, piles,
&c., across mud, as the "Common Hard," Portsea,
where the small boats land and take in
- Hard Down.--
- The order to put the helm hard-a-lee. Also the
tiller may be put hard-a-port; hard-a-starboard;
hard-a-weather; hard up.
- Hard In.-- Sheets are said to be hard in when a
vessel is close-hauled.
- Hard Up.-- The tiller as far to windward as it
can be got for bearing away.
- Pieces of timber or battens that are fitted
around the frames of a vessel in an unbroken line
to keep the frames in their places before the plank
is put on.
- A weapon like a spear with a flat, barbed,
sharp head; the other end has a socket into which
the wooden part is fitted, the whole making a long
spear. The line is attached to the iron and the
wooden part of the shank. The coil of rope is 130
fathoms. Modern harpoons are fired from a small
- The bowman of a whale boat, who throws the
harpoon or fires the gun.
- Harpoon log.--
- This is generally known as "Walker's" log, and
is different from Massey's, inasmuch as the blades
which give the rotation are attached to the part
which holds the wheel work. In Massey's log the
rotation is attached to the part containing the
works by a piece of cord a yard or so long; the
cord of course revolves with the spinning of the
fly, and imparts motion to the wheel work.
- FIG. 49.
- FIG. 50.
- Harpoon Sounding Machine.--
- A contrivance on the principle of the patent
log such as Walker's, used for taking deep
soundings. As the machine sinks the fly or fan
blades rotate, and register by the aid of wheel
work the distance sunk.
- Hatches or Hatchways.--
- Openings in the deck. In a yacht there is
usually the fore hatch used by the crew, and the
sail room hatch aft. Generally the coverings for
hatchways are termed hatches, but strictly this is
inaccurate, and the correct term would be hatch
- Hatchway Coamings.--
- The raised frame above the deck upon which the
hatches or hatch covers rest.
- Haul.-- To pull on a rope.
- Haul Aft the Sheets.-- The order to haul in the
sheets for close-hauled sailing.
- Haul Her Wind.--
- To become close-hauled after sailing free.
Generally to sail closer to the wind when sailing
free. Haul to the wind. Haul on the wind.
- Hauling up a Small Yacht.--
- The yacht should first be lightened of all
movable weights such as ballast and spars and
- This having been done, four 2-1/2-in. or 3-in.
deal planks must be provided, with four rollers
5ft. or 6ft. long and 3-1/2-in. diameter. The yacht
should then be cradle with a very stout rope or
reliable piece of chain, which should he lowered so
far as the rabbet of the garboard strake, and be
supported at that level by small lines under the
quarters and at the bow above the forefoot, where
the ends should he firmly secured with a
- A crab winch with a large double and single
block is commonly used for heaving up, which must
be firmly fixed by driving posts into the ground.
On an inland lake, the first part of the business
is the most difficult, for as the water will not
leave the boat to allow adjustment of the
preliminaries, the boat must be made to leave the
water; and to do this, the deals, which will do the
duty of ways, must be got under her by loading the
ends at the under sides. Two of the rollers should
be made of sinking wood, and the yacht having been
laid on her side, she should be hauled in until
aground, and being still waterborne, the first
roller can then be introduced under her, and
shortly a second and third, when she can be hauled
out of the water as the rollers travel on the
- Greased planks must also be placed under the
bilge. Four men should turn the winch handles, and
not less than two must attend the rollers to watch
and keep them square on the ways, which is done by
striking the ends of them with a maul or small
sledge hammer when they commence getting out of
square. If the yacht is to be continually kept on
this inland lake, it might be worthwhile to have an
iron carriage made for her, consisting of an oblong
frame of the length of a third of her load
waterline, with 6in. iron wheels, with edges or
- Edge rails for this can be nailed to the four
deal ways, and a stout oak or elm plank could be
bolted to the framework of the carriage. This plank
should be, say, a foot wide and 2-1/2in. thick, and
about 6in. longer each side than the extreme
breadth of the vessel, which should be provided
with legs cut with tenons or having bolts to go
through holes or sockets in this plank. The legs
should be secured to the vessel's sides with
through bolts, with either lever or butterfly nuts
on the inside, screwing on against a metal plate.
When this little temporary railway is once
obtained, hauling the yacht up will be a very
simple matter, and she may remain on one deal's
length of it as long as required.
- There should be a hole in the forefoot, and
also at the same level close to the sternpost, by
which the yacht can be lashed square on the
carriage, as soon as she is far enough out of the
water; and when in the desired position she can be
shored up by four shores, one under each quarter,
and others under each bow, and a portion of ballast
might be put on board, unless she has already
sufficient lead or iron on her keel to steady her
against violent gusts of wind, which have very
great power on the side of any craft in an exposed
position, and against which provision must be
- If such a carriage as above described is made,
the rails will, of course, be carefully adjusted to
the correct width, so that the wheels will travel
easily on them, and about a foot from each end of
the deal ways an iron plate should be screwed with
socket holes to receive a clamp or sleeper bar, the
ends turned down to form tenons to go into these
socket plates, which will keep the rails and deals
square with each other. By shifting the after pair
of rails as required, it is evident that the yacht
may be removed any reasonable distance on flat or
nearly flat ground, with facility.
- Haul Round a Mark, Point, &c.--
- When a vessel in sailing free has to come
closer to the wind as her course alters round a
point, buoy, &c. By hauling in the sheets the
vessel will sometimes luff sufficiently without any
help from the helm.
- Haul the Boom Aboard !-
- An order to get the main boom hauled in on the
quarter for close-hauled sailing.
- Haul Up.--
- To hoist a sail. A vessel is said to "haul up"
when she comes, or is brought nearer the wind or
nearer her course if she has been sailing to
leeward of it. Haul up a point, haul up to windward
of that buoy, &c.
- Hawse Bags.--
- Canvas bags filled with oakum, used in a heavy
sea to stop the hawse holes, and prevent tile
admission of water. Wooden hawse plugs are
generally used in a yacht.
- Hawse Pipe.--
- The pipes in the hawse holes in the how through
which the cables pass.
- Richard Falconer, in his Dictionary published
at the end of the last century says, there are some
terms in the sea language which have also immediate
relation to the hawse, as :
- "A bold hawse," signifies the holes are high
above the water. [This would be equivalent to
saying that the ship was high at the
- "Veer out more cable" is the order when a part
of the cable which lies in the hawse is fretted or
chafed, and by veering out more cable another part
rests in the hawse.
- "Fresh the hawse" is an order to lay new pieces
upon the cable in the hawse to preserve it from
fretting. [The above two terms are applied to
- "Burning in the hawses" is when the cables
endure a violent stress.
- "Clearing the hawses" is the act of
disentangling two cables that come through
- "To ride hawse full" is when in stress of
weather a ship falls with her head deep in the sea,
so that the water runs in at the hawse.
- "Athwart hawse" is when anything crosses the
hawse of a ship close ahead, or actually under and
touching the bows; as "she fell athwart our hawse,
and her aide was stove in."
- "Cross hawse," when the cables out 'of
different holes cross on the stem as an X. Distinct
from "clear hawse," which is when each cable leads
direct to the anchor from its hawse hole.
- "Foul hawse," when the cables are crossed in
any way by the ship swinging round.
- Hawser.-- A large rope laid up with the sun or
- Hawse Timbers.--
- The large timbers in the bows of ships in which
the hawse holes are cut.
- The fore part of a vessel. The upper part of a
sail. "By the head" means pressed or trimmed down
by the head, in contradistinction of "by the
stern." To head is to pass ahead of another
- Head Earings.-- The earings of the upper part
of a squaresail, &c.
- The direction of a vessel's head when sailing.
Generally used when sailing close hauled, as "she
headed S.E. on port tack, and N.E. on starboard
tack." In such cases it is never said she "steered
S.E.," &c., as practically the vessel is not
steered, but her course alters with the wind. A
vessel "steers" such and such a course when she is
sailing with the wind free.
- Headland.-- A high cliff or point.
- Headmost.-- The first in order.
- Head Reach.--
- In sailing by the wind when a vessel passes
another either to windward or to leeward. A vessel
is said to "head-reach" when she is hove to, but
forges ahead a knot or two. (See
- Head Rope.-- The rope to which the head of a
sail is sewn.
- Head Sails.-- A general name for all sails set
forward of the foremost mast.
- Head Sea.--
- The sea met when sailing close-hauled. In the
case of a steamship she may meet the sea stem
- Heed Sheets.-- The sheets of the head
- Head to Wind.--
- When a vessel is so situated that the wind
blows no more on one bow than the other; when her
head is directly pointed to the wind.
- Head Way.-- When a vessel moves ahead through
- Head Wind.--
- A wind that blows directly down the course a
vessel is desired to sail. A foul wind. To be
headed by the wind is when the wind shifts so that
a vessel cannot lie her course, or puts her head
off to leeward of the course she had been
- A sort of deadeye made of lignum vitae with one
large hole in it to pass a lanyard through turn
after turn instead of through three holes, as in an
ordinary deadeye. They are something like a heart
in shape, and the lower one is iron bound; the stay
goes round the upper one either by a spliced eye or
an eye seizing; also used for jib sheet.
- Heart Thimble.--
- A thimble shaped like a heart put in the eye
splices of ropes. These are usually made solid for
- To bring a strain or drag upon a capstan bar,
purchase, &c. To throw, as "heave
- Heave About.-- To go into stays to tack.
- Heave Ahead.-- To draw a vessel ahead by
heaving on her cable, warp, &c.
- Heave and Pawl.--
- In heaving on the windlass or capstan to give a
sort of jerking heave, so that the pawl may be put
in, and so prevent "coming up," or the cable flying
out again. Also, in heaving on the mast winches
"heave and pawl" is generally used in the sense of
"belay;" that is stop heaving at the next fall of
- Heave and Rally.--
- An order to encourage the men to heave with
energy when there is a difficulty in breaking the
anchor out of the ground.
- Heave and Sight.--
- A call given after the anchor is off the
ground, and when it is known to be near the surface
on account of the muddy condition of the water it
is making in consequence of the mud on the flukes.
Literally it means one more heave and you will see
the anchor above water.
- Heave and Stand to your Bars !-
- An order given after heaving until the vessel
is over the anchor to give another heave as the bow
descends with the sea and then stand fast, as in
all probability the next time she scends, or lifts,
her head with the sea she will break the anchor out
of the ground.
- Heave and Weigh.-- The last heave of the
capstan that breaks the anchor out.
- Heave Down.--
- To careen a vessel by putting tackles on her
mastheads from a hulk or wharf, and heeling her so
as to get at her aide which was under water for
repairs, &c. A vessel is said to be hove down
by a squall when she does not right
- Heave in Stays.-- The same as heave about.
- Heave Short.--
- To heave on the cable until the vessel is over
the anchor, or the cable taut in a line with the
forestay, so that with another heave, or by the
action of the sails, the anchor will be broken out
of the ground.
- Heave the Lead.-- The order to cast the lead
- Heave the Log.-- The order to throw the log
ship overboard to test the rate of sailing.
- Heave To.--
- To so trim a vessel's sails aback that she does
not move ahead. The same as "lie to" or "lay to" as
sailors call it. If the gale be a fair one the ship
usually scuds before it; if a foul one she heaves
- The lower after end of anything, as heel of the
keel, heel of the mast (the fore part of the lower
end of a mast is called the toe), heel of a yard,
heel of the bowsprit. The amount of list a vessel
- Heeler.-- A heavy puff that makes a boat
- Heel Rope.-- The rope by which a running
bowsprit or topmast is hauled up or out.
- Heel, To.-- To incline, to careen, to list
over, to depart from the upright.
- Height.-- A distance measured in a vertical
direction, as height of freeboard, &c.
- The apparatus for steering a vessel, usually
applied only to the tiller. The word is derived
from Saxon helma or healma, a rudder; German helm,
a handle and a rudder.
- Helm's A-lee.--
- The usual call made in tacking or in going
about, as a signal for the crew to work the sheets,
&c. The helm is a-lee when the tiller is "put
down" or to leeward. (See "Lee Helm" and "Weather
- Helm Port.-- The rudder trunk in the
- Helm, to Port the.--
- To put the helm or tiller to the port side, and
thereby bring the vessel's head round to starboard.
If a wheel is used besides a tiller the action of
turning the wheel to port brings the vessel's head
round to port, as the tiller is moved by the chains
to starboard. Thus with a wheel, when the order is
given to port the wheel is turned to starboard. The
rule observed in French war ships and merchant
ships, since 1876, is this : The order to "port"
means to turn the vessel's head to port; and the
order to "starboard" to turn the vessel's head to
- Helm, to Put Down the.--
- To put the tiller to leeward and thereby bring
the vessel to the wind, or luff; the contrary
action to putting up the helm.
- Helm, to Put Up the.--
- To bring the tiller to windward, so that the
rudder is turned to leeward, and consequently the
head of the vessel goes off to leeward or "off the
- Helm, to Starboard the.-- To put the tiller the
way opposite to port.
- Helm, to Steady the.--
- To bring the helm or tiller amidships after it
has been moved to port or starboard, as the case
- The man who steers a vessel. If a man can sail
a vessel well on a wind he is generally termed a
good "helmsman," and not steersman.
- Hermaphrodite Brig.--
- A two-masted vessel, square-rigged forward, and
fore-and-aft canvas only on mainmast, usually
called a brigantine.
- High and Dry.--
- The situation of a vessel that is ashore when
the ebb tide leaves her dry.
- High Water: Full and Change.--
- On all coast charts the time of high water at
the full moon and new moon is set down, the time of
high water at the full moon and new moon always
occurring at the same hour throughout the year;
therefore, if the time of high water at full and
change (new moon) is known, and the age of the
moon, the time of high water for any particular day
can be roughly calculated, about twenty-five
minutes being allowed for each tide.
- To make a vessel broader on the beam about the
waterline. It is an American term, and became
generally known in England in connection with the
celebrated American yacht Sappho. After her defeat
by the English yacht Cambria, in the match round
the Isle of Wight in 1868, she was taken to New
York and hipped; that is, her planking was stripped
off amidships, and each frame backed with timber,
so that the vessel might be made to have more beam
about the waterline. The backing is "faired" to the
frames and then planked over. Sometimes, if it is
not sought to give the vessel more than five or six
inches more beam, the hipping is accomplished by a
doubling of plank; in such cases a rabbet is ant
for the edges of the new plank in the old plank;
the seam is then caulked and payed. If the new
planks were worked to a feather edge water would
get underneath, and it might soon bring about
- Hire of a Yacht.--
- The hire of yachts varies from 30s. per ton per
month to 40s. per ton. Usually the owner pays all
wages, including those of the steward and cook,
unless the hirer specially desires to engage his
own cook and steward; also often provides for the
mess of the master and mate. The crew always
provision themselves; the owner clothes the crew.
The hirer pays insurance. The exact details of
hiring are usually a matter of special arrangement.
Sometimes at the end of a season, if a yacht is
already fitted out, she may be hired for a less
price per month. When a yacht is wanted on hire,
the best plan is to advertise.
- For a form of agreement, which can, of course,
be varied, see the section which follows.
- Hiring a Yacht (Agreement for).-- Memorandum of
Agreement made and entered into between ___ , owner
of the yacht ___ , of or about tons ___ y.m., and
hereinafter termed the owner, on the one part, and
___ hereinafter termed the hirer, on the other
part, whereby the said owner agrees to let and the
said hirer agrees to hire the said ___ yacht ___
for the period of ___ calendar months from the ___
day of ___ to the ___ day of ___ for the sum of ___
as rent to be paid in the manner following, that is
to say, the sum of ___ on the signing of this
agreement, receipt of which sum is hereby
acknowledged, and the balance at the expiration of
the said term of hire, less any sum or sums
advanced to the captain on account of current wages
for himself and crew, which said advances the owner
hereby authorised to be made and the hirer agrees
to make if required, but not to exceed the total
sum of ___ during the aforesaid period.
- The owner agrees to provide an efficient crew
to manage and navigate the said yacht, consisting
of master, mate, , and to clothe them and pay them
their wages, but the hirer agrees to find his own
steward and to pay him his wages. The owner agrees
to leave such glass, crockery, and such linen as
the yacht is provided with for the hirer's use, but
the hirer agrees to find his own plate and
- The hirer agrees to pay for any damages or
losses in or about the said yacht which shall not
be recoverable under the clauses of the policy of
insurance, which shall include the twenty pounds
damage clause and the naval collision clause.
- The hirer agrees to take over the said yacht at
the port of ___ on the said
- ___ day of ___ , she being in all respects
ready for sea, and to redeliver her at the
expiration of the said term of ___ at the port of
___ in the like good order as that in which he
received her, reasonable wear and tear only
excepted, provided always that in the event of the
said yacht meeting with any accident to her hull or
machinery whereby the hirer is deprived of her use
for a period of not less than forty eight hours, or
if the hirer is deprived of the use of the yacht
through any strike, mutiny, or disaffection on the
part of the crew, such accident, strike, mutiny, or
disaffection not being brought about by any act or
order of the hirer, the owner agrees to allow an
extension of the said term for the like number of
days the hirer has been deprived of the use of the
said yacht from the causes named, but in the event
of the hirer not requiring the use of the yacht for
such extended period ___ after the said ___ day of
___ , then a pro rata return of rent shall be
allowed to him by the owner for such number of days
as the hirer may have been deprived of the use of
the yacht from the causes named.
- It is further agreed that the hirer shall have
the option of extending the said term of hire and
to pay for the same at the rate of ___ , providing
he gives the owner ___ weeks' notice of his
intention of so extending the time; and, in all
cases of such extension, the conditions named
herein shall remain in force, and the owner shall
not be bound to extend the time beyond the
fortnight named unless he mutually agrees with the
hirer so to do.
- The hirer agrees to pay all harbour and dock
dues, and for bills of health and all customhouse
charges and pilotage, and to find and pay for all
consumable stores, such as water, coal, oil, cotton
waste, and the like, and generally to defray all
current expenses in working the yacht during the
period of hiring.
- Signed, ___ Witness, ___
- A mode of fastening a rope. There are many
kinds of "hitches," such as Blackwall hitch, timber
hitch, clove hitch, rolling hitch, &c. A hitch
is also a short tack or board made in close-hauled
- The situation of a vessel when she rises higher
in the middle part than at the ends; the opposite
- Hogging Piece.--
- A piece of timber worked upon top of the keel
to prevent its hogging or rising in the
- The length of the luff of a fore-and-aft sail,
or the space it requires for hoisting. The hoist of
a flag is the edge to which the roping is
- Hoisting the Pennant.--
- A commodore is said to hoist his pennant when
he goes on board the first time, as his pennant is
- Hoist, To.-- To raise anything by halyards or
- The interior of a ship ; generally understood
to mean the space in which cargo, &c., is
- Hold a Good Wind.-- To sail close to the
- Hold her Head Up.--
- A vessel is said to "hold her head up" well
that does not show a tendency to fall off.
- Holding On.-- To continue sailing without
altering a course or shifting sail.
- Holding On to the Land.--
- To keep the land aboard in sailing; not
departing from the land.
- Holding Water.--
- Resting with the blades of the oars in water to
check a boat's way or atop her.
- Hold On.--
- The order given after hauling on a rope not to
slack any up, as "Hold on all that."
- Hold On the Fore Side.--
- If, when hauling on the fall of a tackle, some
of the hands have hold of it on the tackle side of
the belaying pin, the hand that has to belay sings
out, "Hold on the fore side" to those in front of
him, and "Come up behind" to those behind. The
hands on the fore side thus hold the fall and keep
it from running through the blocks whilst it is
being belayed. (See "Come Up.")
- Hollow Lines.--
- The horizontal lines of a vessel that have
- Hollow Masts.--
- Hollow wooden masts are prohibited under the
International Rules in the classes above 10 metres
(32.8ft.), and hollow metal masts are prohibited in
all classes up to 23 metres (75.4ft.) inclusive.
Racing yachts of 10 metres and under use hollow
- Hollow Sea.-- When the waves have a short,
steep, and deep trough.
- Hollow Spars.--
- All racing yachts use hollow spars-boom, gaff,
spinnaker-boom, topsail yard and jackyard, and
topmast are constructed of hollow wood. The tree is
sawn down the middle and the centre scooped out,
the parts are generally turned end for end, so as
to reverse the grain, and then glued together with
cement. Fife, of Fairlie; Robertson, of Sandbank,
Argyllshire; Camper and Nicholson, Gosport; Aldous,
Brightlingsea; Hollwey, of Dublin; and Turk, of
Kingston-on-Thames, are makers of hollow wooden
spars for racing yachts.
- Any operation that is completely performed, as
"sheeted home" when the clew of a sail is hauled
out to the last inch, &c. An anchor is said to
come home when it breaks out of the ground.
- Hood.-- A covering for skylights, sails,
- Hood Ends.--
- The ends of the plank which are fitted into the
rabbet of the stem or stern poet; termed also the
hooded ends, meaning probably that they are
"housed" or covered in by the rabbet.
- Hooker.-- A small coasting craft.
- Hoop.-- See "Mast Hoop" and "Spider Hoop."
- Horizontal Lines.--
- The curved lines on the Half breadth Plan which
show the water lines, the plane of each section
being parallel to the horizon.
- Horizontal Keel.--
- A plate of iron fitted to the underside of a
boat's keel, a fore-and-aft view showing thus
[fig] The plate should be made of iron
plate of from 1/8in. to 3/8in. in thickness. For a
boat 12ft. long the plate should be 8in. wide at
the middle (so as to project about 3in. on either
side of the keel), and 8ft. long, tapering each end
to the width of the wood keel, to the underside of
which it is screwed. The wood keel should extend at
least 3in. below the garboards to render the plate
effective. It is necessary that the plate should be
kept horizontal, or in other words, in the same
plane as the horizon; inasmuch as if the keel dips
forward or aft the tendency of the plate will be to
draw the boat either by the head or stern. A
horizontal keel will increase a boat's
weatherliness, but not to the extent of a centre
board. The deeper the wood keel of the boat is the
more effective the horizontal plate will be, as it
will clear the eddy water along the garboards, and
prevent the possibility of the bilge of the boat as
she heels over being lower than the keel. However,
if a very deep keel is necessary to make the
horizontal plate effective, it may be as well to
have another inch or so, and dispense with the
plate altogether. The plan does not appear to have
met with much favour.
- The projections which form the jaws of gaffs or
booms. The outer ends of the crosstrees are
sometimes termed horns.
- Horn Timbers.-- Timbers which help support the
- A bar of iron or wood, or a rope for some part
of a vessel's rigging to travel upon, such as the
- The projections on a mast which support the
lower cap, cross trees, and rigging.
- To lower a topmast down within the cap.
Sometimes in old racing yachts a topmast was fitted
with one reef to shorten it about 3 feet. This plan
was adopted to set a very large balloon topsail,
but had very little to recommend it. Modern racers
do not house their topmasts.
- Housing of a Mast.-- The part under the
- Hove Down.--
- Said of a vessel that is very much careened or
heeled by the wind or other cause.
- Hove her Keel Out.--
- Said of a vessel that heels over, so as to show
her keel. (Generally used only as a figure of
- Hove in Sight.--
- To come into view; said of a sail that appears
above the horizon or round a headland; also of the
anchor when it comes above water.
- Hove in Stays.--
- Said of a vessel when she tacks, often meaning
that a vessel tacks suddenly.
- Hove Short.--
- When the cable is hove in so that there is but
little more length out than the depth of
- The condition of a vessel with her head sails
aback, so as to deprive her of way. Vessels hove-to
on port tack should fill or get way on, if
approached by a vessel on the starboard tack; but
if the vessel on port tack can, by hailing or
otherwise, make the other vessel understand the
situation, the latter should give way; this is the
custom of the sea, but there is no statutory
regulations concerning the point.
- Hoy.-- A small vessel. Also an abbreviation of
- Hug the Land.-- To sail along as close to a
weather shore as possible.
- Hug the Wind.-- To keep very close, or too
close to the wind.
- Hulk.-- A vessel whose seagoing days are over,
but is still useful as a store ship, &c.
- Hull.-- The ship, as distinct from her masts
- Hull Down.~n the sea when only a vessel's spare
appear above the horizon.
- Hull, To.-- To strike the hull with shot,
- Hull-to, or A-hull.--
- With all sails furled and the helm lashed to
leeward, leaving the waves to do their worst.
© 2000 Craig O'Donnell
May not be reproduced without my permission.
Go scan your own damn dictionary.