Manual of Yacht and Boat Sailing and
(11th and final edition, 1913)
W. Y. Z.
- A slang term for a waterwag, namely, the
smallest type of Kingstown boat.
- Waist.-- The middle fore and aft part of a
- Green hands, or old decrepit seamen, who are
stationed about in the waist of a vessel to haul
upon ropes, &c.
- The peculiar eddying water that appears after a
ship has passed. Vessels are said to leave a clean
wake that do not cause waves to form astern.
- Wales.-- Thick strakes of plank.
- Walk Away with It.-- See "Run Away."
- Wall Knot.--
- A knot formed at the end of a rope by unlaying
and interweaving the strands.
- Wall Sided.--
- Up and down sides of a vessel that neither
tumble home nor flare out.
- To lie in the trough of a sea and roll heavily;
to roll under the sea.
- Warrants.-- See "Admiralty
- Wash Strake.--
- A strake, fixed or movable, of plank fitted to
the gunwale of an open boat to increase her height
out of water.
- An anchor buoy or mooring buoy is said to watch
when it keeps above water.
- Watch and Watch.--
- The arrangement whereby one half of the crew is
on deck for four hours, then the other half for
- The divisions of time for work on board a
vessel. The crew of a ship is divided for this work
into two watches, port and starboard, each watch
being alternately on deck, excepting in
emergencies, when both watches may be called on
deck. Watches are thus divided: From 8 p.m. to
midnight is the "First Watch." From midnight to 4
a.m. is the "Middle Watch." From 4 a.m. to 8 a.m.
is the "Morning Watch." From 8 a.m. to noon is the
"Forenoon Watch." From noon to 4 p.m. the
"Afternoon Watch." From 4 p.m. to 6 p.m., and 6
p.m. to 8 p.m. the two "Dog Watches."
- Watching for a Smooth.--
- In a sea way looking out for a time when the
waves are smaller to tack in, &c.
- Watch Tackle.--
- A tackle consisting of single and double block;
the single block has a hook, the double a
- One cubic foot fresh water .0279 ton or
62.39lb.; one gallon .00447 ton. A ton fresh water
equal to 223.76 gallons.
- One cubic foot salt water .0286 ton or
64.05lb.; one gallon .0046 ton ; 1 ton 217.95
- One gallon fresh water weighs 10.01lb.; one
pint 20oz. A ton of fresh water is usually taken as
36 cubic feet; a ton of salt water as 35 cubic
feet. (See "Cubic Measure of Water.")
- Water Ballast.--
- Water carried in tanks or breakers as ballast.
The tanks or breakers should be either full or
- Water Borne.--
- Not resting on the ground, but being in the
condition of floating.
- Taking water into the tanks by the hose or by
means of breakers. Steam yachts often "water" by
filling their dinghy or their cutter, and then pump
it into the tanks with the donkey pumps, if the
water has to he fetched from shore.
- Water Line.--
- A horizontal plane passing through a vessel
longitudinally. Length on load waterline means the
length in a straight line from the fore side of the
stem to the aft side of the sternpost or counter at
the water level.
- Water Logged.--
- The condition of a vessel, that although her
hold is full of water, she does not sink, owing to
the buoyant nature of her cargo, or from other
- Boil 12oz. of beeswax in 1 gallon of linseed
oil for two hours ; paint the cloth with this
mixture twice or thrice. Colour as required.
- Waterproofing Sail Cloth.--
- The recipe used by Mr. Berthon to render the
canvas of his collapsing boats waterproof, and
similar to that used in H.M. dockyards for hammock
cloths, is as follows: To 6oz. of hard yellow soap
add 1 1/2 pints of water, and when boiling, add
5lb. (more or less according to the required
consistency) of ground spruce ochre, 1/2lb. patent
driers, and 5lb. of boiled linseed oil. For
waterproofing sheets, the ochre should be omitted,
as it adds to the weight, lessens the flexibility,
and is unnecessary.
- Existing coverings are made waterproof by
preparations of india-rubber, oil, paint, &c.
Fabrics coated with india-rubber are not proof
against the effects of climate or rough usage, are
not easily repaired, and, compared with those
coated with the Chinese and other preparations, are
very heavy, and, if the same dimensions, expensive.
The recipe for "waterproofing" calico used by the
Chinese, is said to be efficient, alike in the
hottest and coldest climates, is believed to be
composed of boiled oil one quart, soft soap 1oz.,
and beeswax 1oz.; the whole boiled until reduced to
three-quarters of its previous quantity; but
experiments are required to test the above
- To waterproof cotton drilling boil a mixture of
6oz. hard yellow soap, 1-1/2 pint water, 1/2lb.
patent driers, 5lb. boiled linseed oil.
- Mr. Arthur Hill Coates, a well-known amateur
yachtsman, of Bangor, co. Down, gave the following
instructions for waterproofing sail covers:
- To make a sail cover so that it is not stiff,
but as soft as kid, use strong good calico ; when
the cover is made, wash out with boiling water all
the finish or dressing, dry thoroughly, saturate
with petroleum oil, wring out, and allow to dry in
air. When quite dry, paint with white lead,
coloured to taste, mixed with raw linseed oil and
turpentine, three thin coats. I have a cover five
years old as good as the first day, and as soft as
could be desired, and that never sticks. Waterproof
coats and leggings for boating made the same way
are a luxury.
- The formation of waves is a subject which has
received much attention, but no completely
satisfactory theory as to their genesis has yet
been evolved. The general theory is, that the
smooth sea is acted upon by the impact and friction
of the moving air or wind, and that the waves
increase in size and speed, until the wind force is
incapable of further developing them. Deep sea
waves vary much in length, even under similar
influences of wind pressure, and its continuation.
Captain Motter of the French Navy, measured a wave
in the North Atlantic, 2720ft., or half a mile from
crest to crest, and Sir James Ross, one 1920ft.
long. Such waves however, are seldom met with, and
Dr. Scoresby observed that Atlantic storm waves had
lengths of from 500ft. to 600ft. Measuring the
heights of waves is a more difficult matter than
measuring their lengths, and there has been much
exaggeration under this head.
- The late Sir E. Belcher, at the Institute of
Naval Architects in 1862, mentioned a wave he had
observed rise to 100ft. Professor Rankine, in his
work on Navel Architecture, speaks of waves on
rocky coasts rising to 150ft., and waves have been
known to fly over the Eddystone Lighthouse.
However, the greatest heights of deep sea waves as
measured by Dr. Scoresby, and other accurate
observers, have been 48ft., but it is rare to meet
with waves exceeding 30ft. in height. Ordinary
storm waves such as met with in the Atlantic of
about 200ft. in length, have a height of about
one-twentieth of their length, but the ratio
becomes lower as the length of the waves increase,
and waves of 1000ft. in length have been observed
with but a height of 10ft. On the other hand, waves
of 600ft. in length have been observed of unusual
steepness, and with heights one-eighth of their
lengths. A long series of observations made by M.
Bertin on the heights and lengths of waves, would
seem to prove that the average height of deep sea
waves is as 1 to 25 of their length. This of course
is applied to single waves only. In what is termed
a "confused sea," where a long wave may overtake
and pass through a short one, the general height
becomes increased, almost to the extent of the
combined heights of both waves, and the wave form
under such circumstances, is more or less
"confused." In the English Channel, superposed
waves are common, and the waves generally being
short and steep, heights are met with of about one
eighth the length of the waves. (A wave length is
the length from crest to crest, and wave height,
the height from hollow to crest.)
- The speed of waves is generally proportional to
their length. Thus a wave 20ft. long will travel 6
miles an hour, and one 50ft. long, 9 miles ;
120ft., 15 miles ; 200ft., 19 miles ; 400ft., 27
miles; 600ft., 32 miles ; 1000ft., 42 miles. It
must be understood that it is only the wave motion,
or form, and not the water which travels, and no
substance resting on the water is carried forward
by the advance of waves further than the force of
gravity may give a substance an alternate forward
and backward motion, as it became differently
situated on the sides of waves. Thus a ship will
simply rise and fall with the waves and not be
carried forward by them, and an unbroken wave would
do a ship no harm in the sense of an impact due to
the wave striking her. The danger from waves arises
when they break over a ship, or when a ship by
intercepting a wave causes it to break. (The best
article in a popular form on Waves, and
oscillations of ships among them, is in Sir W.H.
White's "Manual of Naval Architecture.")
- A work by Mr Vaughan Cornish entitled "Waves of
the Sea" (T. Fisher Unwin, 1910), contains some
- Waves, to Still.-- See "Oil
on Troubled Water."
- Motion through the water, as underway, headway,
sternway, steerage way, leeway, &c. (See "Under
- Way Enough.--
- In rowing, an order given by the person
steering a boat when being rowed alongside a vessel
or causeway to direct the oarsmen to cease rowing
with the stroke about to be completed, and lay in
their oars. Way enough! is strictly merely an order
to cease rowing and should be followed by the order
"Oars!" if the men are to be directed to lay in
their oars. In practice, however, the orders "Way
enough!" and "Oars !" have an identical effect upon
a smart yacht's crew when bringing a boat
alongside, i.e., simply to cause the crew to cease
rowing, throw up their oars, and lay them in. This
order generally follows the order "In bow!" --
which see. (See also "Oars.")
- Balks of timber arranged in a kind of chute to
haul vessels upon or to launch them off.
- To bring the wind on the other side of a vessel
by putting the helm up so that the vessel's head
goes round away from the wind instead of towards
the wind as in tacking. Used on square rigged
vessels instead of gybe.
- The windward or "breezy" side of an object. The
side on which the "weather" is felt; not to
leeward. To weather is to pass on the windward side
of an object. In cross tacking the vessel
"weathers" another that crosses ahead of her. To
weather on another vessel is to gain on her in a
windward direction by holding a better wind than
she does -- to eat her out of the wind.
- Weather Board.--
- On the weather side of a vessel. Sometimes in
working to windward by a long board and a short one
the short one is called "weather board."
- Weather Boards.--
- Pieces of boards fitted over open ports to turn
water or rain off.
- Weather Cloth.--
- The cloth in a sail next the luff. The
"weather" leach of a sail is the luff.
- Weather Cloths.--
- Pieces of canvas fitted on ridge ropes and
stanchions of yachts above the bulwarks ; also the
tarpaulins used to cover the hammocks when stowed
in the nettings.
- Weather Gauge.--
- The condition of a vessel that is to windward
of another one. In slang, to possess an
- Weather Helm.--
- The helm or tiller hauled to windward when a
vessel owing to too much after sail has an
inclination to fly up in the wind. If the centre of
effort of the sails is much abaft the centre of
lateral resistance, a vessel will require weather
helm to keep her out of the wind. The tendency to
fly up in the wind can he remedied by reducing the
after sail, or setting more head sail, or by easing
the main sheet. However, all vessels should carry a
little weather helm. (The contrary to "Lee Helm,"
which see.) It has been frequently argued that the
effect of the water pressure on the rudder when the
helm is to windward (that is the rudder to
leeward), is to press the vessel bodily to wind.
ward, and no doubt there is some truth in this,
although the influence of the rudder in this
respect could be only small.
- A relative term used in sailing to define the
action of one vessel which is eating to windward of
another, thus, if a vessel is said to he weathering
on another she is eating her out of the wind, or
closing up to her from the leeward, or departing
from her in a windward direction. Weathering an
object is passing on its windward side.
- Weatherliness.-- See "Weatherly."
- The quality of hanging to windward well or
holding a good wind. This term is often improperly
used to denote good behaviour in a sea way or in
- Weather Lurch.--
- A weather roll or a roll to windward. In
running with the main boom well off, the boom
should be always secured with a guy, or it may fall
to the opposite side during a weather roll, and
cause some damage.
- Weather Tide, or
- The tide which makes to windward or against the
wind. (See "Lee-going tide.")
- Wedges of Immersion and Emersion.-- See
- Wedging Up.--
- Lifting a vessel by driving wedges under her
keel to take her weight off the building blocks
- The exudations of damp or water through the
seams or cracks of planks, &c.
- Weigh.-- To raise a thing, as weighing the
anchor. (See "Underway.")
- Weight of Metal Plates in Pounds per Square
- Weight of Chains.
- A sunken part of the deck aft, termed cockpit
sometimes. In small vessels there is usually a well
aft in which the steersman sits ; the cabin of a
small boat is usually entered from the well. The
cabin of most American yachts, large or small, is
usually entered from the cockpit aft.
- Well That! Well There !--An order to cease
hauling and belay.
- Wexford Flat Bottom Boats.--
- These boats are built for the herring fishery,
and are generally termed "cots." The fishing season
lasts from about the middle of October to
Christmas, and very often the boats are not put
into the water for the rest of the year.
- They are suitable to any coast without quays or
shelter, and where there is often a heavy surf,
making it necessary to haul boats above high-water
mark every time they are used.
- FIG 112.
- The beam of the boat, which is of the larger
sort, is about one fourth of its length, say 6ft.
beam to 24ft. in length, built of the
undermentioned woods, viz.: the bottom and the
beams of either white or yellow pine, the strakes
of yellow pine, and the stem and stern posts, and
the timbers of elm grown in the country.
- The accompanying sketch (Fig. 112) shows a boat
turned over on its side exhibiting the bottom.
- The bottom boards are of wood, not less than an
inch and a half thick; they are laid down on heavy
pieces of squared wood, and the elm timbers, which
are sawn out of wood having the necessary bend, so
as to reach from a few inches beyond the centre of
the bottom to the top of the gunwale, are about two
inches square -- they cross one another, the bottom
boards are then pegged to these timbers by driving
pegs three-quarters of an inch thick and some 8in.
in length through the timbers and boards ; the ends
are left to be cut off after the boat has been
finished and turned over. These pegs are secured by
cutting out a wedge from the lower end with a
chisel, and then driving a wedge into the place
from which it has been cut, thus filling the peg in
the hole more tightly. No nails are used for the
bottom except to attach the short piece of keel at
the stern, say four feet; and the heads of these
nails are sunk in the keel. The wooden pegs never
move, and wear evenly with the bottom; breadth at
bottom, 4.5 ft. The stem and stern are alike, no
transom being required. The end of a short keel
extends some two inches beyond the bottom of the
sternpost to protect the rudder. The stem and stern
posts are morticed for the ends of the bottom
boards, and, as it is well to have them strong,
there is a good lot of dead wood.
- FIG 113.
- The first strake is three-quarters of an inch
thick, and often an inch; but before fastening this
on the beam of wood under the centre of the boat is
either removed or sunk in the ground, say, three
inches, and heavy weights of stones usually are
placed on the bottom, near the centre, to bend the
bottom boards, as it is considered that they do not
row or sail so well on quite an even bottom.
- The rest of the strakes are half an inch thick,
and fastened on both to the timbers and themselves
with iron nails, galvanised if procurable.
Twelve-penny nails are used to fix to the bottom
boards and timbers, and six-penny nails to the
strakes. Of course these boats are all clincher
built, and are rather heavy, weighing three and a
half or four hundredweight. They require four men
generally to run them down and haul them up upon
rollers. These are some 6in. in diameter if the
sand is heavy. Long boards are placed under the
rollers. The sails are usually two or three sprit
sails (see Fig. 113),
- and sometimes a foresail. No keel boats are
ever used, owing to the great advantage of a flat
bottom for grounding.
- Accidents seldom take place with these boats,
but, like all shallow boats, they require very
- The centre-board now remains to be described.
It runs in a frame or sheath formed for it in the
centre of the boat. These, when let down, draw
about 3ft. below the bottom of the boat, and are
about 2ft. broad. The board is about 1in. thick; no
iron is used for them. When they near the shore
they are hauled up. They are not required when the
sails are not used. The depth of these boats is
about 2ft. to the top of the gunwale, and they
generally pull four oars. They are too broad for
one man to scull. Of course they will not carry so
much sail as a keel boat, nor will they sail so
near the wind.
- The ballast used consists of large stones. The
fishermen at Wexford are a bold and hardy race, and
they need be, for herring fishing on a December
night is desperately cold work; but it is their
harvest of the sea, and when four men can take from
twelve to twenty mace of herrings in the night (the
mace is 500, and worth from 15s to 20s.), it pays
them well. It is a pretty sight to see forty or
fifty boats out of a night; but it is very cold
work, and none but those brought up to it could
- Used to give motion to the rudder by chains
which pass over a barrel and lead through blocks to
the tiller. When the tiller points forward the
chain is put over the barrel first; when the tiller
points aft the chain is put under the barrel
- Where Away ?--
- When an object is sighted, a question as to its
- A small boat for rowing and sailing, usual rig
a spritsail, main, and mizen, and foresail. (French
- Whip.-- A purchase consisting of one single
block. A pennant vane.
- Whip, To.-- To bind the ends of rope with twine
to prevent their fraying.
- Whiskers.-- Used to spread bowsprit
- Whistling for Wind.--
- In calms or light winds sailors sometimes amuse
themselves by whistling in the hope that it will
bring a breeze. They also scratch the boom for a
breeze, or to make the vessel go faster. During
heavy weather the superstition is all the other
way, and no whistling or boom scratching is
- Whole Sail Strength.--
- A wind of such strength that a yacht can just
carry all her canvas, including her "best" (not
ballooner) gaff topsail, to windward.
- Wicked-looking.-- Said of a craft which has a
smart, raking appearance.
- A drum with crank handles, pawl, &c.,
fitted to the mast to get in the topsail sheet,
- Winch Roller Reefing Gear.--
- Rolling the foot of a sail round the boom is an
old invention, just as reefing square sails round
the yards is, and pretty good proof of the value of
the boom roller in short handed vessels is the fact
that it is generally used by the pilots about the
Isle of Wight, &c. They revolve the boom by the
means of an endless chain on sheaves, and it
answers very well; but various other plans are in
use, and those invented by Mr. Baden-Powell, Mr.
Roger Turner, and Mr. Linton Hope are highly
recommended by yachtsmen who have seen them in use.
Mr Baden-Powell's gear is shown in the chapter on
- FIG 114
- Turner's gear (see Fig. 114) is very largely
used ; the sole manufacturers are W. Delf and Son,
Beccles, Suffolk. It is very inexpensive, the cost
being as follows :-
- Special prices are given for larger sizes.
- In ordering the gear owners should mention
whether A, B, C, or D is required, and also give
the exact diameter of each end of the boom. One
claw-ring (charged extra, as above) will be sent
with each set of gear, unless otherwise
- Mr. Hope's gear is made by Messrs. Woodnutt, of
St. Helens, Isle of Wight, and has been fitted to
vessels up to 90 tons It is illustrated on Plate
- Mr. F. D. Marshall, writing of his gear, says :
"After having tried the roller reefing arrangement,
as depicted on the accompanying scale drawing
(quarter full size), for three years, it can be
confidently recommended to fellow yachtsmen as
suitable for yachts ranging from 18ft. to 42ft.
rating. The facility with which any number of reefs
may be taken in or shaken out is astonishing, and
there is the further recommendation that the sail
is not pulled out of shape by the reef earings, but
rolled smoothly and compactly round the boom. It
has been urged that the mainsheet ring will chafe
the sail when reefed, as the friction will be
great, but on carefully examining the Lady Nancy's
mainsail after three years of wear no sign of
chafing is to be noticed. The mainsheet ring at the
extremities must, of course, be well padded with
soft. canvas, and, if this is carefully done, the
chafing is reduced to a minimum.
- "It is not within the writer's knowledge who
first invented this arrangement, but the Lady
Nancy's, in the first instance, was made by Herr
Heidtmann, of Hamburgh, but was improved and
perfected by the writer. Previously he had seen a
similar arrangement on some Hamburgh boats, and it
was the facility with which these boats reefed that
induced the writer to give the system a trial.
- "The drawing (see Plate LXXIII) is sufficiently
clear, and little explanation is necessary. The
apparatus, however, must be very conscientiously
and strongly made of the toughest (preferably
- "The main boom must be quite parallel from end
- "The eyebolt, for fastening the tack of the
sail to the boom, must be almost flush with the
boom, otherwise the eye will cause an indentation
in the sail when rolled. A split and hinged eyebolt
is the best to adopt.
- "The main boom has a groove along its upper
side, to take the foot rope of mainsail. This is
necessary, to cause the foot to roll evenly around
- "The sail must be laced to the boom.
- "The topping lift is attached to a loose swivel
plate, to prevent the lift rolling round the boom
as the latter is revolved.
- "The mainsheet ring is made of a grooved piece
of iron (the grooving is for strength), to which is
riveted the outside bar of round iron. The ring
must be of such strength that it cannot spring open
in heavy weather and allow the main boom to get
- "The extremities of the ring are padded with
soft canvas. Do not pad with leather, as this will
stain the mainsail.
- "Modus Operandi.-- It is always advisable to
hoist the mainsail before reefing, if at moorings,
as the sail rolls around the boom tighter and
snugger, although the reefing may be accomplished
with the sail on deck, if care be taken to stretch
the sail along the boom as latter is revolved.
Having sail properly hoisted and peak well set up
proceed to reef as follows: Slack throat halyard
until hook (D) is free from traveller band (E).
Untoggle as many mast beeps according to the
quantity of sail to be rolled up. Have a piece of
gas or steam tube handy to ship on handle of
ratchet, this lengthening of handle gives more
leverage and power. Work the ratchet, and roll the
sail around boom, so that boom travels up the mast
as high as pen can reach, and work the ratchet
(assuming the sail is to be so much shortened).
While the sail is being rolled up, slack mainsheet
as necessary, remembering to keep sheet as taut as
possible. Overhaul topping lift as main boom goes
skywards. Lower away on throat and peak halyards
until boom is down in place. If sail is to be
further shortened, proceed as before. When
sufficient has been rolled up, lower away until
hook (D) can grip the hand (E). Set up on throat
and peak, overhaul topping lift, and all is
- "NOTE.-- Instead of reefing the sail up the
mast as described the sail may be rolled down by
simply slacking the main and peak halyards as the
sail is taken up by the revolving boom. The topping
lift will take the weight of the boom. Experience,
however, has shown that a snugger job is made by
rolling the sail up the mast and lowering boom
- Wind Bound.-- See "Bound."
- Windfall.-- An unexpected advantage or
acquisition of treasure.
- Wind Jamming.--
- A new-fashioned slang term for sailing by the
wind. Wind jammers, sailing ships.
- A horizontal barrel, revolved by cranks or
handspikes, forgetting the anchor. In yachts a
small neat capstan is now generally used.
- Wind Marks.--
- The marks or assumed marks on sheets to which
they are hauled in for sailing by the wind.
- The following arrangement and description of
winds has been generally adopted:
- Windsail.-- A canvas shaft or tube for
conveying air to or from below deck.
- Wing and Wing.--
- A schooner before the wind with the main sail
off the lee quarter, and the foresail boomed out to
windward. Some. times termed goose winged. (See
- Wings of a Ship.-- That part of a ship at the
sides near the load line.
- A west country term for a kind of winch used in
the bow of a boat by fishermen to raise the anchor.
- Winning Flag or Crowing Flag.--
- The racing flag which is hoisted after a race
to denote that a yacht has won a prize. It is
hoisted immediately below and on the same halyards
as the burgee. When a regatta is concluded a yacht
hoists under her burgee as many racing flags as she
has won prizes at the regatta. On arriving at a
port, fresh from a regatta where she has been
successful, she, in a like manner, hoists as many
racing flags as she has won prizes; and if she
calls at her own port she hoists as many flags as
she has won prizes up to date. When she has sailed
her last match she hoists as many racing flags as
she has won prizes during the season. These are
also hoisted when she returns to her own port. For
a first prize, the racing flag should be close up
under the burgee; about 1/3 down the mast for a
second; and 1/2 or 2/3 down for a third, or
different coloured flags may be used to denote
second and third prizes.
- Wire Rope, Weight of.--
- The weight, elasticity, and strength of iron
and steel wire rope and hemp rope vary very
considerably, according to the quality of the iron,
steel, or hemp used in its manufacture. The
following table of the weight of different sizes of
rope, iron, hemp, &c. was compiled by the
well-known civil engineer Mr. G.L. Molesworth:
- Manilla rope, if not dried up and chafed, is
slightly stronger size for size than hemp.
- A stringer or ledge running fore and aft in a
boat to support the thwarts. (See "Clyde Sailing
Boats.") Called also "Risings."
- Wisby Laws.--
- A code of maritime laws which, with the rules
of Oleron, for many centuries formed the basis of
all regulations relating to seamen and ships. Wisby
is a seaport of Gothland in the Baltic, and a port
famous so long back as the 13th century.
- Woof.-- The threads or texture of any kind of
cloth or canvas, &c.
- A vessel is said to work when the different
parts of her frame, planking, &c., are not
securely bound together so that the various parts
relative to each other alter their positions.
- Working to Windward.--
- Proceeding by short tacks. Beating to windward.
To work up to a vessel is to get nearer to her or
catch her whilst beating to windward.
- Something worth knowing; a piece of valuable
experience. Wrinkles in copper are generally a sign
of severe strains in vessels, or that the vessel
"works," or that her frame and plank shifts when
she is under way in a sea. Sometimes wrinkles will
show when a vessel is hauled up to dry and
disappear when she is put in the water as the plank
- Generally a "yacht" is any vessel which is
permanently fitted out and used by her owner for
pleasure. The word is of Dutch origin. In the time
of Elizabeth a "yacht" was kept for the use of the
Sovereign, and since that date every succeeding
monarch has had more than one yacht.
- About the year 1900 there was considerable.
discussion as to whether any pleasure craft,
privately owned, could he justly described as a
yacht and Mr R. E. Froude defined "a racing yacht"
as such a vessel "combining habitability with
speed." This appears a good general definition, for
should the vessel be constructed so as to be merely
a fast vessel but uninhabitable, she ceases to be a
gentle. man's yacht in the true sense of the word,
but is more truly described as a "sailing machine."
On the other hand, if the craft is nothing more
than a luxurious cruiser lacking in speed, she
cannot be properly described as a "racing
- Schooners (see "Schooner") are supposed to have
been evolved out of the old pinks, which were
referred to be Spenser in his "Faerie Queene." They
were certainly common among the many different
vessels in the British navy during the reign of the
Stuarts, and were chiefly remarkable for their
sharp sterns. (In the "Navy List" for 1644 are the
names of the Paramour pink and Talbot pink.) They
were of Dutch origin; but they were certainly used
by the Spaniards in the Mediterranean, and differed
from the xebecs by having flat instead of sharp
floors. However, according to the researches of
Admiral Smythe, a yacht existed in England in the
time of the Plantagenets under the name of
"esnecca." This name, esnecca, appears to have been
dropped by the English in the reign of Charles II,
when that Monarch was presented by the Dutch with a
"yacht" named Mary, in the year 1660. Charles II
became very fond of yachting; and besides many
yachts which were designed for him by Sir Phineas
Pett, he is credited with having desired one for
himself, named Jamaie, which was built at
- The Jamaie was matched against a small Dutch
yacht named Bezan in 1662 from Greenwich to
Gravesend and back, and the King was gratified to
find his vessel leading by three miles at the
finish, although the little Dutch craft led by half
a mile beating down, "the wind being contrary, but
saved his stakes in returning, his majesty
sometimes steering himself," according to Mr.
Pepys. This is probably the first account of a
yacht match, and the first record of an amateur
helmsman. These yachts were, no doubt, sloop
rigged, but yachts did not owe their origin to
Charles II; for, as before said, the Plantagenets
had their Royal yachts, and one later on, often
referred to, the Rat of White, was built by Queen
Elizabeth at Cowes. It is scarcely possible,
therefore, that the Dutch can claim a greater
antiquity for yachts than the English; and, indeed,
so far as "yachting," as now understood, goes,
there appears to be no doubt that it originated
with Charles II, whose frequent yacht matches with
his brother, the Duke of York, and his constant
changing of his vessels, are duly recorded by
- The following is a list of the yachts built by
- American yachting dates no farther back than
the commencement of the last century. Mr. J. C.
Stevens, when he resigned the commodoreship of the
New York Yacht Club in 1855, wrote a letter to the
members, in which he left one to infer that
American yachting originated with him; and he went
on to say, "I have been a yacht owner for more than
half a century, commencing in 1802 as builder,
cabin boy, cook, and all the hands of the
celebrated yacht Diver, 9ft. long, 3ft. wide, and
3ft. deep, ending as commodore of a squadron whose
flagship, the Maria, carries her pennant one
hundred and fifty feet above the surface of the
sea" ; and her bottom, he might have added, four
feet under the surface of the sea, as truly she was
four feet in the water and one hundred and fifty in
the air. The first American yacht club was the "New
York Yacht Club," organised in 1844.
- Various yachts were built at Cowes during the
eighteenth century, but to Cork apparently belongs
the honour of originating yachting as a national
pastime. In 1720 the "Cork Harbour Water Club" was
established; but the yachts were small; and not
until about 1783 did any private person build a
yacht of any considerable size. This yacht was
built at Itchen for the Duke of Richmond, and
between that date and 1812 various yachts were
built at Cowes, Fishbourne, and Southampton.
- In 1810 a club was started at Cowes (the club
seal of the Royal Yacht Squadron bears date 1812),
and thenceforward yachting made very rapid strides.
In 1812 there were probably fifty yachts afloat,
and these belonged exclusively to noblemen or to
country gentlemen. In 1850 the number of yachts
reached 500, and the pastime of cruising and racing
had taken a firm hold of all branches of the
community. From this time forward the growth in the
number of yachts became very rapid, as will be
gleaned from the tables which follow. Until the
present century the number of sailing yachts and
their tonnage continued to increase. In 1899 there
were 5161 sailing yachts in the world. In 1904
there were 5335. In 1912 the number had dropped to
4980. The reason for this was that hundreds of
small sailing yachts between the years 1904 and
1912 were fitted with oil motors and for this
reason are not included in the figures as sailing
- NUMBER OF YACHTS.
- In 1912 there were 2746 steam and motor yachts
and 4980 sailing yachts; 1590 yachts fitted with
motors are included in the number of steamers in
- YACHTS OWNED IN VARIOUS COUNTRIES.
- The tables prove that in the world the sport of
yachting is ever on the increase. The number of
yachts in the world has steadily increased in the
last twenty years.
- [Note that only the first of several
tables is in this first draft.]
- In the last decade, however, this increase in
the fleet has been due to the growth of maritime
sport in foreign nations. The United Kingdom has
reached its high water mark. In Germany in 1901
there were 470 yachts, and in France in 1901 there
were 577. In 1912 Germany nearly doubled her number
of yachts, having 900, but in France there was a
decrease, being only 546.
- The following table shows at a glance how the
increase has arisen in the foreign fleet:
Yachts in the World.
Owned in the United
Built in the United
- The figures in the last column prove that the
growth of yachting in foreign countries continues
to benefit British yacht builders and designers. In
1891 England had built over 70 percent of the
world's yachts. She has still built 58.3 percent,
notwithstanding the fact that from 1891 to 1912 the
number of foreign owned yachts has increased by 48
- Yacht Club.--
A club formed with the ostensible object of
associating yacht owners, and promoting a fondness
for the sea. (See "Recognised Yacht
British yacht owners follow the regulations of
the Royal Navy as far as possible in saluting,
&c. (See "Saluting"; see also the "King's
Regulations for the Royal Navy," which can be
obtained from Messrs. Harrison and Sons, price 2s.
6d.) The New York Yacht Club has drawn up the
following complete set of rules of "Yacht Routine"
for the use of its members. Although those relating
to flag signals, "meals," "guest flag," &c.,
are not in common use in British waters, the
general Routine set forth is in accordance with
time honoured custom and drafted with commendable
SECTION I. DISTINGUISHING FLAGS AND SIGNALS.
- 1. IN COMMISSION.-- The distinguishing marks of
a yacht in commission, other than the yacht ensign,
are a burgee and flag or private signal. On sailing
yachts, when under way, the yacht ensign should be
displayed at the main peak of single and of
two-masted yachts, at the mizzen peak of
three-masted yachts and at the mizzen gaff of
ketches and yawls. Steam or other power yachts
should fly the yacht ensign from a staff at the
stern. When at anchor, the yacht ensign should be
displayed from a staff at the stern of all yachts,
other than ketches and yawls, where it should be
displayed at the mizzen truck. On a yacht with two
or more masts, the burgee is flown at the fore
truck and the private signal at the main. When
under way, single-masted yachts, other than ketches
and yawls, should fly the owner's private signal at
the main truck; when at anchor, the burgee. On
ketches and yawls, the private signal should be
flown at the mizzen and the burgee at the
- On a mastless yacht, the distinguishing flag is
flown at the loftiest or most conspicuous heist,
but the burgee and private signal should never be
flown on the same hoist. The distinguishing flag of
a Flag Officer is always flown at the main both day
and night. The Club burgee and private signal may
be "made up and mastheaded previous to colours and
"broken out" when the signal for colours is given,
but the ensign should never be "made up" and
- 2. Distinguishing SIGNALS, PENNANTS, &c.--
Distinguishing signals, pennants, &c., will be
found described in the By-Laws, and in the coloured
plates in the N.Y.Y.C. Book of Rules.
- 3. JACK.-- When prescribed by routine a yacht
should fly the National Union Jack.
- 4. ABSENT SIGNAL.-- The absent signal is a
rectangular blue flag by day and a blue light by
- 5. OWNER'S MEAL SIGNAL.-- The owner's meal
signal is a rectangular white flag by day and a
white light by night.
- 6. GUEST FLAG.-- The guest flag is a
rectangular blue flag (same as absent signal) with
a white stripe running diagonally across from
- 7. CREW'S MEAL SIGNAL.-- The crew's meal signal
is a red pennant.
- The absent flag and meal signals are not
- 8. CLUB LAUNCH'S SIGNAL.-- To call the Club
launch the letter "T" should be hoisted from
daylight until dark, and a red light should be
shown at night. Three blasts on the fog horn may
also be sounded.
SECTION II. COLOURS, &c.
- 1. RANK.-- In making colours, salutes, &c.
the yacht always represents the rank of its owner,
whether he be aboard or not.
- 2. FLAG OFFICERS.-- A Flag Officer should
always fly his flag while his yacht is in
commission, except when he is on a cruise with
another club of which he is a member.
- 3. IN COMMISSION.-- A yacht in commission
should make colours at 8 A.M. and haul down at
sunset taking time from the Senior Officer
- 4. IN COMPANY WITH A U.S. VESSEL, &c.--
When in company with a vessel of the United States
Navy, or at anchor off a United States Naval
Station, the Senior Officer should give the time
for colours with such vessel or station.
- 5. OFF THE ANCHORAGE OF ANOTHER CLUB.-- The
time for colours in the home anchorage of another
club should be taken from its Senior Officer
present, subject to paragraph 4.
- 6. ENTERING PORT BEFORE OR AFTER COLOURS.--
When a yacht comes to anchor, or gets under way,
her colours should be hoisted, although the time is
earlier or later than that specified in paragraph
3, provided there be sufficient light for the
colours to be recognised. On entering harbour under
such circumstances, the colours should be hauled
down immediately after anchoring. At other times,
all yachts, except Flagships, should fly, between
sunset and morning colours, a night pennant at the
- 7. ENSIGN DISPLAYED AT SEA.-- Unless there are
good reasons to the contrary, the ensign should,
when at sea, be displayed on falling in with ships
of war, and on approaching lightships, lighthouses,
signal stations, military posts, or towns.
- 8. HALF-MAST COLOURS.-- On occasions of
national mourning, the ensign only should be half
masted. On the death of a yacht owner, the burgee
and his private signal, but not the ensign, should
be half masted. When mourning is ordered for the
death of a member, the burgee only should be half
masted. This rule should apply to a yacht both at
anchor and under way, and to the Club House.
- 9. COLOURS; HOW HALF MASTED.-- In half masting
colours they should, if not previously hoisted, be
first mastheaded and then lowered to half mast.
Before lowering from half mast, colours should
first be mastheaded and then lowered. When the
ensign is at half mast, it should be mastheaded
before making or returning a salute.
- 10. THE JACK; WHEN DISPLAYED.-- The Jack should
be set on Sundays, on all ceremonial occasions, and
when the Senior Officer present has it set. When
displayed, the Jack should be set on a staff at the
bow. The Jack should not be set when awnings are
housed, when wash clothes are triced up, or when
under way, except as provided in Section VII.,
paragraph 4 ("Dressing Ship.")
11. UNOFFICIAL PRESENCE OF FLAG OFFICER.-- A Flag
Officer embarked in a boat, not flying his
distinctive flag, should be considered as present
in an unofficial capacity.
- 12. The burgee and private signal should never
be flown on the same hoist.
- 13. The time for sunset as published in the
Club Book shall be official.
SECTION III. ABSENT AND MEAL SIGNALS.
- 1. ABSENT SIGNAL.-- When an owner is not on
board, his yacht should hoist the absent signal at
the starboard main spreader. An absent signal does
not exempt a yacht from the observance of the Club
- 2. OWNER'S MEAL SIGNAL.-- During an owner's
meal hours his yacht should hoist the specified
signal at the starboard main spreader.
- 3. GUEST FLAG.-- Should the owner be absent,
the guest flag may be hoisted.
4. CREW'S MEAL SIGNAL.-- During the crew's meal
hours the specified signal should be flown at the
port fore spreader of a yacht with two or more
masts, and at the port spreader of single-masted
- 5. SQUARE-RIGGED YACHTS.-- In a square rigged
yacht, the owner's absent or meal signals should be
hoisted at the starboard main yardarm, and the
crew's meal signal at the port fore yardarm.
- 6. MEAL SIGNALS UNDER WAY.-- Meal signals may
be hoisted when the colours are not displayed, but
never when under way.
- 7. COMMITTEE BOAT.-- On a yacht acting us
Committee beat, the Regatta Committee flag should
be hoisted at the main truck underneath the private
signal or Flag Officer's pennant.
SECTION IV. LIGHTS.
- 1. COMMODORE.-- From sunset until sunrise. the
Commodore should show two blue lights hung
vertically at the stern.
- 2. VlCE-COMMODORE.-- The Vice-Commodore should
show lights, as provided for the Commodore,
substituting red lights for blue.
- 3. REAR COMMODORE.-- The Rear Commodore should
show lights, as provided for the Commodore,
substituting white lights for blue.
- 4. ABSENT SIGNAL.-- When a yacht is at anchor
amid the owner is absent, a blue light should after
dark be shown at the starboard main spreader in a
fore-and-aft rigged yacht and at the starboard main
yardarm in a square-rigged yacht.
- 5. SEARCHLIGHTS.-- A search light should be
carefully handled, and its beam should never be
thrown on the pilot house or on the helmsman of a
yacht or boat under way.
- 6. BOAT BOOMS.-- Boat booms should be rigged in
at night, but if rigged out, a white light should
be showing at the boom end.
- 7. All boats riding by a stern line should show
a white light.
SECTION V. GUNS.
- Guns should be used only for "colours," for
drawing attention to signals, and as hereinafter
SECTION VI. SALUTES.
- 1. STEAM WHISTLES.-- Steam whistles should
never be used in saluting.
- 2. GUNS.-- Gun salutes should be avoided as
much as possible.
- 3. ENSIGNS.-- All salutes, except as
hereinafter provided, should be made by dipping the
- 4. VESSELS OF THE U.S. NAVY.-- Vessels of the
United States Navy should be saluted by dipping the
- 5. COMMODORE.-- On all occasions, except as
provided in section IX, paragraph 1 (Annual
Cruise), the Commodore should, on coming to anchor,
be saluted with one gnu by the officer in command
of the anchorage. This salute should be answered in
kind by the Commodore. All other yachts present
should dip the ensign once (see Section VIII.)
- 6. Junior FLAG OFFICER.-- A Junior Flag Officer
should, when coming to anchor, he saluted by the
officer in command of the anchorage by dipping the
ensign once, unless the latter he senior in rank,
in which case the junior should salute first.
- 7. CAPTAINS.-- A Captain should salute the
Senior Officer present by dipping the ensign once,
either before or when the yacht comes to
- 8. PASSING.-- The salute for passing yachts is
one dip of the ensign.
- 9. COMMITTEE BOAT.-- A Committee Boat should
neither salute nor be saluted during a race.
- 10. SALUTING ANOTHER CLUB.-- On arriving at the
home anchorage of another club, a yacht should, on
coming to anchor, salute by dipping the ensign
once. After the tender of Civilities has been
received, the owner of the entering yacht should
visit the officer in command of the anchorage.
- 11. DURING OFFICIAL VISIT OF A FLAG OFFICER.--
When a Flag Officer makes an official visit, his
flag, if senior, should be hoisted at the fore of a
yacht with two or more masts, and at the main of a
single masted yacht, the burgee being hauled down.
The Flag Officer's flag should be kept flying while
he remains on board, and when leaving and well
clear of the yacht, one gun should be fired and his
flag be hauled down.
- 12. SALUTING QUARTERDECK.-- When a yacht is
boarded or left, the quarterdeck should be saluted
by touching the cap.
- 13. DISTINGUISHED VISITORS.-- When a
distinguished visitor of another nationality visits
a yacht, his national ensign should, if possible,
he displayed at the fore, on a yacht with two or
more masts; and at the main, on a single-masted
yacht, the Club burgee being hauled down.
- 14. PERSONAL FLAGS OF OFFICIALS.-- A yacht may
display the personal flag of a National State, or
Municipal officer, when such an official is on
board. This flag should be displayed at the main
for the President of the United States, and at the
fore for all other officials.
SECTION VII. DRESSING SHIP.
- 1. GENERAL RULE.-- In dressing ship,
rectangular flags should alternate with pennants on
distance lines whenever possible.
- 2. DISTINCTIVE FLAGS AND FOREIGN ENSIGNS.--
Flag Officer's flags and burgees should not be used
in dressing ship, nor should the ensign of any
foreign nation be displayed, except when the
dressing is in compliment to such nation. On this
occasion the foreign ensign should be displayed at
the fore truck. When a yacht is dressed the ensign
should be displayed in lowered boats.
- 3. NATIONAL ANNIVERSARIES.-- On the Fourth of
July, and when ordered on other national
anniversaries, a yacht in commission, not under
way, should, when the weather permits, dress ship
at 8 a.m., and remain dressed till sunset. When
said anniversaries occur on Sunday, all special
ceremonies may be postponed to the following
- 4. On special occasions only, such as marine
parades, a steam yacht under way, or sailing yacht
under tow, may dress ship.
SECTION VIII. OFFICERS IN COMMAND OF
- 1. DUTIES.-- The Senior Officer present should
(except in the home waters of a foreign club)
command the anchorage, give the time for colours,
make and return salutes, visits, etc.
- 2. STATION VESSEL.-- His yacht should remain
the station vessel until a senior in rank
- 3. TRANSFER OF COMMAND.-- When a Senior Officer
transfers the command he should fire one gun. This
should be answered in kind by the officer assuming
command of the anchorage.
- 4. SHIP'S BELLS.-- Time should always be taken
from the Flagship or the Senior Officer's yacht
present. If in company with a naval vessel time
should be taken from that vessel.
SECTION IX. ANNUAL CRUISE.
- 1. COMMODORE'S SALUTE.-- On joining the
Squadron at the rendezvous, the Commodore should,
on coming to anchor, he sainted by the officer in
command firing one gun, all other yachts present to
follow by firing one gun or dipping the ensign
once. This salute will be returned by the Commodore
firing one gun. Yachts arriving after the Commodore
has assumed command should dip the ensign once
either on passing the Flagship or on coming to
anchor. When the Squadron is disbanded, the
Commodore should fire one gun and be answered by
the yachts present firing one gun or dipping the
- 2. JOINING OR PARTING COMPANY.-- After joining
the Squadron a yacht should request permission
- 3. Gun AND OTHER SIGNALS.-- When with the
Squadron guns should not be fired except to call
attention to signals, or as provided for in other
4. SQUADRONS PASSING AT SEA.-- When squadrons of
different clubs meet at sea, salutes should be
exchanged by the Senior Officers alone.
- 5. SALUTES FROM SINGLE YACHTS.-- Salutes from a
single yacht at sea should be answered only by the
- 6. BURGERS ON SINGLE-MASTED YACHTS.--
Single-masted yachts, while cruising in Squadron,
should display their private signal when under
sail, and the Club burgee when at anchor. [no,
actually that's "BURGEES"]
- HOME WATERS.-- "Home Waters" should be
understood to mean all waters from Sandy Hook to
Cape Cod, excluding the home anchorages of other
recognised yacht clubs.
SECTION XI. BOAT SERVICE.
- 1. PRECEDENCE.-- The order of entering and
leaving boats is: Juniors enter first and leave
- 2. BOAT FLAGS.-- When in boats, Flag Officers,
the Fleet Captain, and Regatta Committee should fly
their distinctive flags, Captains their private
signals, and Members the burgee. The flag of the
Senior Officer embarked has precedence. When two
boats are approaching the same gangway or landing
stage Flag Officers should have the right of
- 3. HAILING AND ANSWERING.-- Every boat
approaching a yacht at night should be hailed, and
this hail should be answered promptly. The answer
of the Commodore intending to board his own or
another yacht should be "Commodore"; of a Junior
Flag Officer, "Flag"; of the Fleet Captain, "Fleet"
; of a Captain, the name of his yacht; of a Member,
"Aye, aye" ; of a Visitor, "Visitor" ; of a sailing
master or any other yacht officer, "No, no" ; and
of a member of the crew, "Hello." Passing boats
should answer "Passing."
- 4. BOAT CREWS.-- Boat crews should be dressed
alike and in the prescribed uniform. Neck
handkerchiefs should always be worn, knotted in
front, and cap ribbons should not be tucked
- Yacht Racing Association.--
- An association of yachtsmen originated in 1875
by Prince Batthyany-Strattman (at that time known
as Count Edmund Batthyany), Capt. J. W. Hughes, one
time owner of the Vanguard cutter, R.Y.S., and the
late Mr. Dixon Kemp. The object was to provide one
code of sailing rules for use in all matches, and
to decide such disputes as might be referred to the
Council of the Association. The Association and
Council are constituted similarly to the Jockey
The Rules of Yacht Racing known as the "Y.R.A.
Rules" were formulated by the Association and are
acknowledged in British waters as the only
recognised code of yacht racing rules for all sizes
Since the formation of the International Yacht
Racing Union in 1907, the Yacht Racing Association
has been the National Authority for Great Britain
affiliated to the Union, which comprises all the
yachting nations of Europe.
The Union has adopted, practically without
alteration, the "Y.R.A. Rules," hence the code has
now become recognised throughout Europe.
- Yacht Register.--
- A book issued annually in May by Lloyd's
Register of British and Foreign Shipping,
subscription 1£ 1s. Previously to the year
1877 difficulty was experienced in arriving at the
age and condition of a yacht, but the "Yacht
Register," published by Lloyd's annually since that
date, contains all the particulars an intending
purchaser need know. Owners will derive benefit
from having their yachts surveyed and classed at
Lloyd's, and special facilities now exist for
making such surveys and assigning characters. The
Register contains the following particulars Names
of yachts (sail, steam, and motor yachts of all
sizes) ; official number, number in the Register;
signal letters ; rig; sailmaker's name; registered
tonnage, net and gross; Thames tonnage; dimensions
(length, breadth, and depth); repairs to yacht, and
date thereof; nature of repairs ; class; materials
used in her construction ; builder's name;
designer's name; date of building; port; port of
survey; fastenings; sheathing; description of
engines; builders of engines, &c.
So complete is the "Yacht Register" that these
headings are given in three languages, English,
French, and German. The "Yacht Register" also
contains complete lists of yacht and Sailing Clubs,
Yacht Club flags, ensigns, and burgees; owners'
racing and personal flags; names and addresses of
owners of yachts; and names and addresses of
builders and designers. A special section of the
book, since 1907, has been devoted to the racing
yachts built for the International Rating Classes
of all countries belonging to the International
Yacht Racing Union.
- "The Rules and Regulations for Building for
Classification of Yacht" and the "Rules for the
Building and Classification of Yachts of the
International Rating Classes" are two separate
volumes forming supplements to the "Yacht Register"
-- they are sold separately, price 5s. each. The
first-named relates to cruising yachts and all
vessels classed "A1," and the second to
International racing yachts of the classes of 23
meters and under, which are classed "R." These
rules and regulations relate to wood, iron, and
composite yachts ; and tables of scantlings,
fastenings, &c. are given for each, together
with a table for anchors, chains, &c. for
sailing yachts and steam yachts. These Volumes are
most valuable, and are of great assistance to
builders who have little experience of the
particular work required in a yacht, as well to the
more experienced builders. A yacht can be built of
any material and fastened in almost any way an
owner or builder may desire, and still she can be
admitted with a grade into the book.
Existing yachts can be surveyed, and, if approved,
assigned the A1 class for fourteen years, or any
other grade, according to their construction,
condition, and age. The volumes contain full
information as to the manner of having a survey
effected. The offices are Lloyd's Register of
British and Foreign Shipping, Lloyd's Avenue,
Fenchurch Street, E.C. (See also "Lloyd's,"
"Rules," "A1," and "R.")
- Yard.-- A spar used to extend a sail.
Yard Arm.-- The extremities of yards.
- A yarn is generally understood to mean one of
the parts of a strand of a rope. The strands of old
rope are separated and used as stops for
temporarily securing sails when rolled up, &c.
A narrative, a tale, a long story, or discourse.
- When a vessel's head flies from one direction
to another; generally when a vessel does not steer
a straight or steady course.
- A two-masted fore-and-aft rigged vessel with
the mizen mast stepped in her counter.
- Yellow Flag or Yellow Jack.-- The quarantine or
- The lower cap on the masthead. It is cut out of
solid wood, and either strengthened by an iron
plate over the whole of its top, or an iron band
round its entire edge. The crosstrees are fitted on
the yoke. A yoke is also the crossbar put on the
rudderhead of small boats, to which lines, termed
yoke lines, are attached for steering.
- Zig-Zag Work.-- Working to windward by short
© 2000 Craig O'Donnell
May not be reproduced without my permission.
Go scan your own damn dictionary.