Manual of Yacht and Boat Sailing and
(11th and final edition, 1913)
B. - BM.
- To back a sail, is to haul the sheet to
- Back and Fill.--
- To luff up in the wind, and then fill off
again. Often a vessel is worked up a narrow channel
with a weather tide by backing and filling: that
is, the helm is put down slowly, and the vessel
kept moving until she is nearly head to wind; the
helm is then put smartly up, and the vessel filled
again. Care must be always taken to fill before the
vessel loses way. Figuratively, to back and fill is
to blow hot and cold, or assent and dissent, or to
go backwards and forwards with opinions.
- Timber fitted at the back of other
- The stays that support the topmast with a beam
or stern wind. The topmast shrouds or rigging. (See
"Shifting Backstay" and "Preventer.")
- The water thrown back when waves strike a wall
or other solid object. The water that appears to
follow under the stern of a ship. To back water is
to move the oars of a boat so that the boat moves
astern instead of ahead.
- Baffling Wind.--
- A wind that is continually shifting its
direction, so that it is difficult to keep the
sails full or steady; more frequently used when the
vessel is close or nearly close hauled.
- Sails are said to bag when they do not sit
- To bring the sheet of an after-sail, such as
the mizen, forward to the weather rigging, so that
the sail forms a bag, or back sail: when head to
wind useful to put stern way on a vessel.
- Balance Lug.--
- A lug sail with a boom and yard. About
one-twelfth of the sail is on the fore side of the
mast, and thus "balances" on the mast, requiring no
dipping when going about; apparently adapted from
the Chinese lug sail.
- Balance Reef.--
- In gaff sails a hand with reef points or eyelet
holes for lacing, sewn from the throat to the clew.
The reef is taken in by lowering the jaws down to
the boom and lacing the sail along the reef band to
the boom. Sometimes the gaff end is lowered down to
the boom end ; in which case the reef band is laced
along the gaff.
- To throw water out of a vessel or boat by
buckets or balers.
- Baler or Bailer.--
- A small basin-like vessel, used for throwing
water out of a boat.
- A hewn tree; a piece of timber for masts,
- Dead weight carried to assist the stability of
a vessel. A ship is said to be in ballast when she
has no merchandise on board, but only sand, gravel,
mud, or rubbish as ballast. A yacht in marine
parlance is always "in ballast."
- Ballast, To Keep Clean or Sweeten.--
- The ballast of an old vessel should be removed
every other season, scrubbed, and whitewashed with
hot lime, or coated with black varnish, paraffin,
or red lead. The hold of the yacht should at the
same time be thoroughly cleansed and black
varnished, distempered, or red leaded, or coated
with one of the patent paints. A mixture of
two-thirds Stockholm tar and one-third coal tar
boiled together will make a good composition for
the ballast and the inside of a vessel below the
floor. Many vessels are regularly hauled up every
year, and of course their ballast is taken out and
stored. The ballast of a new vessel generally
requires cleansing when she is laid up, as the
soakings from the oak frames make a very unpleasant
odour. (See "Distemper," "Laying Up," and "Limber
- Ballast Bearers. (See "Bearers.")
- Ballast, Shifting.--
- To put ballast (usually duck shot in bags) in
the weather side of a vessel during sailing. This
practice for many years has been strictly forbidden
in yacht racing, and if a man were known to
practise it he would be at once debarred from
racing under Y.R.A. rules. Shifting ballast is of
course forbidden on account of its extreme
- Balloon Sails.--
- Balloon canvas is a term applied to sails of
large dimensions, made of light cotton canvas.
The chief balloon sail is the spinnaker used for
sailing when the wind is aft. A balloon jib used to
fill up the whole space from the bowsprit end,
masthead, and mast at deck; a balloon foresail is
hanked to the forestay, but the clew extends some
distance abaft the mast; in a schooner a balloon
maintopmast staysail has an up and down weather
leech extending below the lower corner of the sail,
which is hanked to the maintopmast stay. It is
sheeted on to the end of the main boom. A balloon
jib topsail or "Yankee" jib topsail is a useful
sail ; all modern balloon head sails are cut very
high in the clew, so that the lead of the sheet
nearly makes a right angle with the luff of the
sail. Balloon jibs have long gone out of fashion.
They were succeeded by "bowsprit spinnakers,"
whilst the bowsprit spinnaker, a low-footed sail,
has in turn given place to the higher clewed
balloon jib topsail A balloon topsail is another
name for a jackyard topsail, or a topsail set with
two yards. The upper or "topsail yard" is a
vertical continuation of the topmast. The "lower"
yard or jackyard is parallel with the gaff and
should act as a direct continuation or extension of
it. In setting a jackyard topsail a certain amount
of "drift" or "space" should be left between the
gaff and the lower yard so that there may be play
to take up the slack of the sheet.
A modern jackyard topsail should set as flat as
a card. Formerly, the foot yard was short and the
head yard was of great length -- as long as could
be stowed on the deck of a yacht -- and the sail,
very heavy to hoist, was quite unfit for
close-hauled work. As the hoisting of these heavy
yards was an operation of so much labour, they fell
into disuse for some years between 1873 and 1888.
After that date the sail was reintroduced with a
comparatively short head yard and longer foot yard,
after a pattern designed in American waters. The
sail had consequently as much area as the old
fashioned "balloon topsail," and the combined
weight of head yard and foot yard was about half
that of the old yard; beyond this, as the sail was
well peaked, it sits and stands well on a wind in
moderate breezes. In the present century with the
introduction of hollow yards the area of the sail
has been further increased, and the extreme
lightness of yards has enabled the modern balloon
topsail to be carried efficiently in fresh and even
- Bamboo Spars.--
- In small boats these are often used on account
of their lightness. They vary much in strength, and
should be from 10 to 20 percent greater diameter
than solid wood spars.
- Bare Poles.--
- With no sail set. With all the sails furled or
stowed at sea for scudding before a heavy gale, or
sometimes for lying to.
- Bargee.-- A slang term for the crew of a
- Bar Harbour.--
- A harbour that has a bank or bar of sand or
gravel at its month, so that it can only be entered
at certain hours of the tide.
- Bark.-- A general term for a vessel.
- A three or four masted vessel, square rigged on
all but the mizzen mast.
- A vessel square rigged on her foremast, and
fore-and-aft rigged on her two other masts.
- Barra Boats.--
- Vessels of the Western Isles of Scotland, with
almost perfect V section.
- Barrel or Drums.--
- The part of a capstan, windlass, or winch round
which the cable or rope is wound whilst heaving.
Sometimes termed the drum.
- Base Line.--
- In naval architecture a level line near the
keel, from which all heights are measured
perpendicularly to it. Generally in yacht designs
the load waterline, as shown so a Sheer Plan, is
made the base line, and all depths arid heights are
measured perpendicularly or at right angles to
- A long piece of wood need to lash to yards or
booms to strengthen them. Thin pieces of hard wood
fitted to spars to prevent their being chafed or
cut. Thin splines of wood used by draughtsmen to
make curved lines. A general term for a thin strip
of wood. Battens are fitted to sails to keep the
- Batten Down.--
- Putting tarpaulins over hatches or skylights,
and securing them by iron bars or wood
- Beach.-- A shore. To beach is to lay ashore, or
- Beach Boats.-- Flat floored boats that can be
- stake, boom, or post put on a sandbank or shoal
as a warning for vessels.
- Beacon Buoy.--
- A buoy with a cross, ball, or triangle,
&c., on the top.
- A timber that crosses a vessel transversely to
support the deck. The breadth of a vessel. "Before
the beam" is forward of the middle part of a ship.
The wind is said to be before the beam when the
ship makes a less angle than 90û with the
wind. A beam wind is a wind that blows at right
angles to a vessel's keel. "Abaft the beam "is
towards the stern.
- Beam and Length.--
- The proportion a vessel's beam bears to her
length varies according to her type. In sailing
yachts it is found that for cruising a good
proportion is about three and a-quarter to three
and a half beams to waterline length.
- Beam Ends.--
- A vessel is said to be on her beam ends when
she is hove down on her side by the wind or other
force, so that the ends of her deck beams are on
the water, or her deck beams perpendicular to the
water. However, in sea parlance, a ship is said to
be on her beam ends when knocked down by a squall
to say 45û, so that when a ship is described
as being on her "beam ends" the meaning need not be
- Beam Trawl.--
- A trawl whose mouth is extended by a long spar
or beam, as distinct from the otter trawl, which is
distended by boards.
- Bear, To.--
- The direction an object takes from a ship
expressed in compass points or by points in the
vessel; as in reference to another vessel she bears
S.E. or W.S.W., &c., or on the port bow, or
weather bow, port beam or weather beam, port
quarter or weather quarter, &c. ; or two points
on the weather bow or port bow, &c.
- Bear a Hand There ! -- An admonition to
- Bear Away, or Bear Up.--
- To put the helm to windward and keep the vessel
more off the wind. Generally used in close-hauled
sailing when a vessel begins to alter her course by
sailing off the wind. (See "Wear.")
- The beams which carry the cabin floor or
platform of a yacht, termed platform bearers.
- The direction between one object and another ;
generally the direction of an object on land to a
ship. The widest part of a vessel which may either
be above or below water. A vessel is said to be on
her bearings when she is heeled over, so that her
greatest breadth is in the water.
- Bearings by Compass.--
- An object is said to bear, so many points on
the port or starboard bow, or port or starboard
quarter, or port or starboard beam as the case may
be; or an object may be said to bear E.N.E. or E.
or W., &c., from the point of observation.
The usual plan of taking a bearing is to stand
directly over the binnacle, and notice which point
on the compass card directly points to the object.
A more accurate way of taking bearings may be
followed thus on each quarter-rail abreast of the
binnacle, have a half compass plate of brass fixed,
or mark off compass points on the rail, and let two
opposite points (say north and south) be in direct
line or parallel with the keel. A pointer or hand,
eight or nine inches long, must be fitted to the
plate, to ship and unship on a pivot; move tire
pointer until it points directly to the object,
then read off the number of points it is from the
direction of the ship's head. Next observe the
direction of the ship's head by the binnacle
compass ; if the ship's head points N., and the
pointer showed the object to be, say, four points
away westerly from the direction of the ship's
head, then the object will bear N.W., and so on. If
very great accuracy be required, and if the ship be
yawing about, one hand should watch the binnacle
compass, whilst another makes the observations with
An object is said to bear "on the bow" if its
direction in relation to the ship does not make a
greater angle with the keel of the vessel than
45û. If the direction of the object makes a
greater angle than that it would be said to bear
"before the beam" ; next on the beam, then abaft
the beam, on the quarter, right astern.
- To beat to windward is to make way against the
wind by a zigzag course, and frequent tacking. (See
"Plying," "Thrashing," and "Turning to
- Beating to Windward.-- (See "Beat.")
- To deprive a vessel of wind, as by one vessel
passing to windward of another.
- Becalmed.-- In a calm; without wind.
- A piece of rope used to confine or secure
spars, ropes, or tackles. Generally an eye is at
one end ; sometimes an eye at either end; or a knot
at one end and an eye at the other.
- Manual strength; generally the weight of the
men hauling on a rope. "More beef here" is a
request for help when hauling. Probably the term
originated with the casks of beef used for food on
- Before the Beam.-- Towards the bow or stem of a
- Before the Mast.--
- A term used to describe the station of seamen
as distinguished from officers. Thus a man before
the mast means a common sailor, and not an officer.
The term owes its origin to the fact that the
seamen were berthed in the forecastle, which is
usually "before the mast."
- Before the Wind.-- Running with the wind
- The performance of a ship in a seaway or under
canvas is generally termed by sailors her
- Belay That.--
- An order given whilst men are hauling on a
rope, &c., to cease hauling and make fast to
the last inch they have got in. Also slang for
cease talking or fooling.
- Belay, To.--
- To make fast a rope or fall of a tackle. In
hauling upon a rope the signal to cease is usually,
"Belay!" or "Belay there!" "Belay that !" or "Avast
hauling ! Belay!"
To belay the mainsheet in small boats where the
sheet travels on a horse through a block. The block
will travel on the horse by a thimble eye strop ;
the sheet will he spliced to the clew cringle in
the sail and rove through the block. Bring the fall
of the sheet down to the pin under the stern seat,
round which pin take a single torn then take a
bight and jam it between the sheet and the seat,
and a slight pull will release the sheet. The sheet
can be belayed in the same fashion by a turn taken
under a thole pin in the gunwale; or a bight of the
fall can be taken and made fast round the sheet
above the block by a slippery hitch. A pin for
belaying a single sheet is shown in the
accompanying sketch (Fig. 7). A through pin is
fitted into the transom as shown The fall of the
sheet is brought round the pin outside the transom,
then round the pin inside the transom, and a bight
jammed in between the transom and sheet.
- Belaying Pins.--
- Pins in racks, in cavels, spider hoops,
&c., to make fast ropes to.
- Belaying the Binnacle.--
- A slang term applied to the acts of a greenhorn
or sham sailor who uses unseamanlike terms, or
misapplies well known terms, or makes unseamanlike
or impracticable suggestions.
- Bell Buoy.--
- A buoy with an iron cage upon top of it,
containing a bell which is struck by a hammer or
hammers moved by the heave of the sea.
- The manner of keeping time on board ship by
striking a bell every half hour. Thus one bell is a
half hour, as half-past twelve; two bells one
o'clock ; three bells half-past one, and so on
until eight bells are struck, which would be four
o'clock. One bell would then be begun again and
proceed up to eight o'clock. Thus eight bells are
struck every four hours, the duration of a watch.
Except in the afternoon when, to change the order
of the watch, one bell is struck at six p.m.,
dividing the time from 4 p.m. to 8 p.m. into two
dog watches of two hours each.
- A general term for the under-deck space. To go
below is to descend from the deck to the cabin, or
to under the deck. A seaman always goes "below,"
and never "downstairs." It is considered very green
and landsman-like to hear a person on board a
vessel speak of going "downstairs" for below, or
upstairs for "on deck."
- Below! or Below There ! --
- A mode of hailing or attracting the attention
of the crew below by those on deck.
- To fasten a rope to another I to fasten a rope
to a spar; to bend a sail to a yard, &c. A
knot, a mode of fastening a rope to a spar,
- Bends.-- The wales of a ship. Stout planks on
the side of a ship.
- Aground for want of water, owing to neap tides.
The rise and fall of neap tides during quarter
moons are lees than during the full and change;
consequently, if a vessel got ashore during a high
water spring tide she might have to remain all
through the neap period.
- Bermudian Rig.--
- The mast of a Bermuda rigged boat is very long,
and is often placed far forward with a considerable
rake aft, and the sail set upon it is of the
well-known sliding gunter shape. The objection to
the rig before hollow spars were invented is the
long heavy mast placed in the eyes of the boat, and
although the sail stands well when hauled in on a
wind, yet off the wind it causes some trouble, as
it is often very difficult except in very strong
breezes-to keep the sail from falling on
- Berth.-- A place to sleep in; a cabin.
- Berthed.-- The situation of a ship when
- Berthon's Logs, or Speed Indicators.--
- A log invented by the Rev. E. Berthon. A tube
passes through the keel, and the water rises in
this tube in proportion to the speed of the vessel
through the water. A simple mechanical contrivance
of weight, line, and pulley serves to indicate the
speed on a dial.
- In shipbuilding, the departure from the square
a timber is made to take to suit the inclination of
a plank. An oblique edge of a piece of timber or
- Bevelling Board.--
- A piece of wood used by ship builders on which
the angle of the bevels for timbers are marked in
- Pieces of timbers fastened to the hounds of
ships' masts to support the trestle trees.
- A loop or part of a rope doubled so as to form
a loop, thus:
- or, the deepest part of a bay.
- The round in a vessel's timbers where they
begin to approach a vertical direction.
- A vessel is said to be bilged when her framing
is broken in, or damaged along her bilge by
grounding, or falling down when shored up by the
side of a wharf.
- Bilge Keels.--
- Pieces of timber or steel plates (sometimes
termed rolling chocks) fitted longitudinally on a
vessel's bottom, so that she may take the ground
readily and not damage her bottom. Bilge keels,
however, now fulfill different offices and are
fitted to large ships to assist in checking their
rolling. Nearly all beach boats are fitted with
bilge keels, and to some extent they prevent a boat
making lee way; of course only the lee bilge keel
can so operate to any useful extent, and the
effectiveness of this one would be interfered with
by the disturbed state of the water near it. Bilge
keels, if very deep, would affect very greatly a
boat's handiness in tacking; also the lee one would
assist in heeling the boat to an extent dependent
upon the force of the lee way, and the area of the
bilge keel; on the other hand, bilge keels will
tend to check the sudden heeling of a boat, for the
same reason that they cause the process of rolling
to be more slowly performed, because they have to
move a body of water. In steel and iron built steam
yachts, bulb iron bilge plates are often fitted and
check the rolling.
- Bilge Kelsons.--
- Stout pieces of timber fitted inside a vessel
in a fore-and-aft direction along the bilge to
- Bilge Strakes.--
- Thick plank worked longitudinally in the
ceiling of a vessel inside along the bilge, or over
the heads and heels of the frames, to strengthen
her-used instead of bilge kelsons, and through
- Bilge Water.--
- The water inside a vessel, which in
flat-floored crafts may rest in the bilge.
- A point of land ; also the extreme points of
the flukes of an anchor.
- Bill Boards.--
- Pieces of wood fitted to the head of a vessel
to protect the plank from the fluke of the
- Bill of Health.--
- A document wherein it is certified that the
condition of the crew is healthy or otherwise.
Hence a clean bill of health means that all the
crew are free from disorders, and a foul bill of
health the contrary.
- Bill of Lading.--
- A document setting forth the cargo of a ship,
certified by the master.
- Bill of Sale.--
- A document by which a vessel is transferred
from one owner to another. A "Bill of Sale" must be
produced before a register can be transferred.
Forms of Bill of Sale can be procured from Waterlow
and Sons, printers and stationers, London, E.C.
There are several points to which attention
should be given before concluding a purchase. Wages
form a prior claim on every vessel. It is therefore
essentially necessary that a purchaser should
satisfy himself that no claims of this description
exist; or be may find, after he has completed his
purchase, that he has some further large amount to
pay before be can call the ship his own. In 1890 a
case occurred in which the mortgagee of a large
steam yacht, after taking possession, had to defend
an action in the Admiralty Court, brought by the
late master for wages and necessary payments, and
eventually had to pay a large sum to settle these
claims. It should also he seen, before a purchase
is completed, that possession of the yacht can be
given, and that she is in the hands of no
shipbuilder who has a lien upon her and a right to
detain her for work done. With regard to yachts, of
course claims for salvage seldom arise ; but it is
just as well to remember that, if they do exist,
they form a claim against the vessel.
As to the sale of yachts, very little need be
said, but there are one or two simple rules which
it is absolutely necessary to follow. A vendor
should never, under any circumstances, give up
possession of his vessel until he has the
purchase-money in hand. A breach of this rule has
not infrequently produced rather serious
consequences. In 1890 an owner sold his vessel to
an apparently rich man, and very weakly gave him
possession. He had to sue for the purchase-money,
and to get the sheriff to seize and sell the yacht
again, at a considerable reduction in price, before
he was paid. Fortunately for him, he did get his
money eventually, although the purchaser became
bankrupt within a few months after the
It is necessary to be very guarded in dealing
with foreigners. A case occurred, some few years
since, in which an American gentleman bought a
schooner yacht, and was given possession before
payment of the purchase-money. The purchaser
thereupon proceeded to get under way for America,
and neglected to pay for the ship. The owners
pursued him in a tug and brought him back to Cowes;
thus securing the vessel, but not the money.
Another rule which should be observed is never
to send a vessel out of the country to a foreign
purchaser until payment has been made in England.
An owner may find it a very difficult matter to
enforce payment in a foreign court. The purchaser
may raise difficulties and objections to the yacht
after she has got abroad, and the owner may have to
bring his yacht home again, with the expenses of
his crew and his outfit to pay.
Another point with regard to which vendors
require to be careful is the commission payable on
a sale. Few sales are effected nowadays without the
intervention of an agent, and it is an ordinary
practice to put a yacht into the hands of several
agents for sale. A purchaser frequently writes
round to every well-known agent for a yacht likely
to suit him, and perhaps lie gets particulars of
the same vessel from three or four different
agents. It is often very difficult to say which of
them first introduces the vessel to him, and who is
entitled to receive the commission on the sale. It
is not an uncommon occurrence for two or three
claims to be made for commission on the same vessel
; and it is very needful for the owner, before he
completes his contract, to satisfy himself on this
point, and to make sure that he will not be called
upon to pay more than one commission on the sale of
- Billy Boy.--
- A bluff, round-ended vessel, common in the
north, often rigged as a cross between a ketch and
schooner, usually with a single square
- A ease wherein the compass is contained. (See
"Compass" and "Fluid Compass.")
- Bird's Nest.-- (See "Crow's Nest.")
- Birlin.-- A rowing and sailing boat of the
- Bitter End.--
- The end of a cable left abaft the bitt a after
the turns have been taken. Sometimes the anchor is
shackled to the "bitter end" when the used end has
become much worn. The extreme end of a rope.
- Stout pieces of timber fitted in the deck to
receive the bowsprit ; also stout pieces of timber
fitted in the deck by the side of the mast, to
which the halyards are usually belayed.
- Black Book.--
- A book kept at the Admiralty, or said to be,
wherein is recorded the offences of seamen. Several
yacht clubs have kept "black books," but they have
been of little use, as owners showed a
disinclination to insist that no man should be
engaged in his yacht who was on the "black
- Blacking Down.--
- Painting or tarring the rigging, or sides of a
- Black Jack.--
- The black flag hoisted by pirates.
- Black Leading a Boat's Bottom.--
- It was formerly a common practice to black lead
the bottom of boats, especially for match sailing,
and the custom is still much followed. There were
several methods of getting the lead on, and the
following is as good as any:
First scrape the bottom clean of old paint, tar,
&c., and stop open seams, nail holes, shakes,
&c. Then put on a thin coat of coal tar,
reduced by turpentine or naphtha until quite
liquid. When dry and hard put on another coat, and
if the boat is a large one this second coat should
be put on by "instalments." When nearly dry, but
yet sticky, put on the black lead, in fine powder.
To get the powder on a dabber must be used; a
sponge tied up in a soft piece of cotton cloth is
the best thing for the purpose. Care must be taken
not to attempt to put on the black lead in the sun
or the tar will come through. On the other hand, if
the tar is hard the black lead will rot "take
hold." When the whole is thoroughly dry and hard,
polish up with the ordinary brushes used by
housemaids for grates.
- Black Paint.--
- A good mixture for the outside of a boat is
thus made: to 6lb. of best black paint add half
pint of good varnish and 1/2-lb. of blue paint.
Or, black 9lb; raw linseed oil 1 quart ; boiled
linseed oil 1 quart ; dryers 1/2-lb.
For an iron yacht : 1cwt. of Astbury's oxide
paint ; 6 gallons of boiled linseed oil; 1 gallon
of turpentine ; 3 gallons of varnish; 21 lb.
dryers. (Messrs Astbury's, King-street,
- Black Varnish.--
- Modern racing yachts are generally coated on
the bottom with a mixture known as black varnish
(See "Varnish"). When the varnish is well mixed and
put on by a skilful man it is generally considered
the best bottom for racing. In hot weather,
however, a black varnished bottom must he wiped
off, touched up, and repolished (about every two
weeks) or it will become slimy.
- Blackwall Hitch.--
- A hitch used to jam the bight of a rope to a
hook, &c. (Fig. 8.)
- Blade.-- The flat part of an oar or screw
- An American plan for bleaching sails is as
- Scrub with soap and fresh water on both sides,
rinse well, then sprinkle with the following
solution : slacked lime, 2 bushels; draw off lime
water and mix with 120 gallons water and 1/4-lb.
blue vitriol. This also preserves the sails. (See
- Blind Harbour.--
- A harbour whose entrance cannot readily be made
out from a distance.
- Unsightly blisters on paint are generally
caused by putting new paint upon the top of old, or
using very thick paint. The old paint should be
burnt or scraped off.
- A pulley. A single block has one sheave;
double, two ; three-fold or treble, three ; and so
on. (See "Fiddle Block" and "Sister Block.")
- Black and Block.--
- Chock-a-block. Two-blocks. When the blocks of a
tackle are hauled close together. A vessel is said
to take her main sheet block and block when the
boom is hauled so much aboard that the two blocks
come close or nearly close together.
- Blow, A.-- A gale of wind.
- Blue Jackets.-- Sailors.
- Blue Peter.--
- A blue flag with a white square in the centre;
hoisted at the fore truck as a signal that the
vessel is about to go to sea, and five minutes
before the start of a race.
- Blue Water.-- The open sea or ocean.
- Bluff.-- A wall-like headland.
- Bluff-bowed.-- Very full bowed, thus: xxx
- Abbreviation for builders' measurement or
tonnage, the formula for which is ((L - 3/5 B) x B
x 1/2 B) / 94 . The length is taken from the after
side of the sternpost in a line with the rabbet of
the keel to a perpendicular dropped from the tore
side of the stem on deck. This is "length between
perpendiculars.'' O.M. is sometimes used, that
being an abbreviation for "Old Measurement," which
is the came as B.M.
© 2000 Craig O'Donnell
May not be reproduced without my permission.
Go scan your own damn dictionary.