Manual of Yacht and Boat Sailing and Architecture

(11th and final edition, 1913)

Cheek - Cutter.

Cheek Blocks.--
A sheave fitted on a spar inside a sort of cleat, as the cheek block for topsail sheet on the end of a gaff.
Cheeks of the Mast.-- The hounds.
It is an old custom in yacht racing for the losing yacht as soon as possible after the finish of a race to cheer the winner. The etiquette is as follows : The master of the losing yacht says to his crew: "Now, boys, give the Istria a cheer'' ; his crew then line up on the side nearest that vessel and the mate hails : -"Istria, Ahoy ! hip, hip, hip, hurrah ! hip, hip, hip, hurrah! hip hip, hip, hurrah!" Then the winning yacht's crew similarly line up end hail the losing yacht and respond with three cheers given in the same way. The vanquished crew then give a single "hip, hip, hurrah!" to "come up with," or finish off. (See "Man Ship.") Sometimes a little ill feeling between crews may arise in the course of a race, but the owner should not permit any feeling to cause his vessel to omit to cheer a winning vessel.


In very light winds, if a cloud passes overhead and a puff comes out of it, it is called a chill-probably on account of its coldness.

Chime or Chine.--

The part of a waterway on the deck of a ship which joins the spirketting. The bilge joint of a barge is also termed a chime or chine.

Chinese Lug.-- A lug sail with battens.

Chips.-- A nickname for a ship's carpenter.
Chock.-- A block or wedge of wood.
Chock a Block.--
Said of two blocks when, in hoisting or hauling, the two blocks of a tackle are brought close together. Generally when two things are brought so close together that they cannot be got closer.

Chock Full.--

Full to the brim. Frequently used in close-hauled sailing to let the helmsman know that the sails are full enough, and he need use no more weather helm. (See "Ramping Full.")

Chock Home.-- Close up.


Choppy Sea.--

A short, steep sea, which makes a vessel continuously pitch and 'scend.

Chuck.-- To throw.

Chuckle-headed.-- Full or bluff in the bow; thickheaded.
Chuck to Windward.--
A weather-going tide is said to chuck a vessel to windward, and the contrary a lee-going tide.


Circumference of a Circle.--
The diameter multiplied by 3.14159 ; in algebra denoted by the Greek letter pi or perimeter.


A thick strake of wood worked inside a vessel under the shelf.


A kind of wedge vice, used in boat building ding to hold the plank together. Various contrivances of wood or metal used in fitting up a vessel or in fixing parts in her construction.

Clap on Canvas.--

To put on more canvas. "Clap on here!" is a request frequently made to idlers to assist in hauling on a rope.

Claw.-- To hang well to windward, as to "claw off a lee shore."

Claw to Windward.--
To beat to windward under difficulties. To claw off a lee shore is to boat off and avoid getting stranded.

Clean Full.-- Barely close-hauled when all the sails are full.


Clear for Going Afloat.--

A question often asked when work is being done on deck, and the vessel has to be put about: "Are ye all clear there for going about?"


Pieces of wood with one or more arms fastened to spars, &c., for belaying to, or to prevent ropes slipping, &c, (See "Thumb Cleats" and "Cruickshanks' Patent Safety Cleats.")

Clench Work (spelt also "clencher," "clincher," and sometimes "clinker.") --

In boat building when the edges of the plank overlap, forming lands.


The lower corners of a square sail ; in fore-and-aft sails only the lower after corner is called the clew.

Clew Lines.-- Clew garnets. Ropes used for hauling up the clews of sails.

Clew Up.--
To haul up a sail by the clew lines for furling, &c. Also used as a slang term for shut up or cease.


Clinch .--
To fasten a rope by a half hitch, and seize the end hack to the other part; a method adopted with very large ropes or hawsers after they have to be bent to rings, &c. in a hurry. To clinch is also to beat the end of a bolt or rivet until it forms a head; or to turn the end of a nail in so that it will not draw.


Clincher Work.-- See "Clench."
The hard cinder which forms on furnace bars. Sometimes wrongly used for clincher work in boat building. (See" Clench Work.")


An instrument for measuring the angle of inclination or the extent of heel a ship has under canvas or whilst rolling.


Clip for Chain of Centre-Board.--
Captain F. du Boulay, of the Bembridge Sailing Club, recommends a clip made of galvanised iron as shown in Fig. 25 , and fastened just behind the sheave over which the chain works. One of the crew who has hold of the chain can, lowering his hand, drop the chain into the clip and jam it, but by keeping the chain level he can raise or lower his board freely.


FIG 25.
Clip Hook.--
A double hook (hinged below the eye) whose parts overlap when attached to a ring, &c. A hook not much in favour, as it so frequently breaks or gets half detached.


FIG 26.


A fine ship ; first applied to the sharp bowed ships that sailed out of Baltimore, U.S.


Clipper Stem or Bow.-- An overhanging stem or prow.


Clock Calm.-- So calm and still that the ticking of a clock could be heard.


Close Aboard.--
Near to, as the land is said to be close aboard when a vessel has approached it very closely.


With all the sheets trimmed flat aft, and every rope that helps extend the sails hauled taut. Hauled as close to the wind as the sails will admit without shaking their luffs. When a square-rigged ship is close-hauled she is about from five to six points off the wind. A fore-and-aft schooner, with everything nicely trimmed for racing, will lie within four and a half points of the wind ; a cutter within four and a quarter points. This, of course, supposes the water to be smooth and the wind of what is known as "whole sail strength." In rough water a vessel cannot be sailed so close ; hi the Atlantic race between the Cambria and Dauntless, the former, although she had head winds for a large part of the time, for two reasons was never hauled up closer than six points; generally there was too much sea to admit of it without being half hove to, and in such long passages it was thought better to sail her along hard on the chance of the wind freeing; or if it headed her she could have been put on the other tack. (See "Wind.") while in wind, push hover over to opposite side, and hook again. Until well settled down to the work, it is best to keep the lever approximately as desired by bearing against it with the knee or the foot. Should half the angle be sufficient, the lever may be allowed to come hack till it takes against the outer edge of the little sliding cap. When the board is to be got rid of temporarily for paddling or to clear a shoal, it is turned clear up under the bottom, as shown by the dotted line in one of the cuts, by taking bold with the lever m one of the outer holes of the three in the shaft.


Close Reefed.--
When the last reef is taken in, generally the fourth reef; but some modern yachts with laced mainsails have only three reef hands, and it is thought that when the fourth reef is wanted that it is time to set the trysail.


Close to Wind.--
Close hauled. As close to the wind as the sails will bear without lifting.


The outfit given to a yacht's crew by the owner, consisting of trousers, frocks, caps, shoes, and neckerchief. When the yacht is paid off the men take the clothes with them, but if a man is discharged for misconduct, he is made to leave his clothes behind. Under any circumstances the men have no legal right to the clothes if the owner chose to retain them, as it is only a kind of livery.


Clothes Lines.--
A sail is said to be across a clothes lines when it is girted by a rope. Lines used on board men-of-war for drying the sailors' clothes on washing days.


Cloth in the Wind, A.--
When the foremost cloth or luff of a sail is shaking through the vessel being brought too near the wind. A man is said to be three cloths in the wind when intoxicated.


Clove Hitch.--
Two turns of a rope round a spar, &c., the ends coming out under the middle part, one on each side.


Coach Roof.-- See "Booby Hatch."
Coal, Consumption of.--
With engines of the old type a steamer consumed from 4lb. to 6lb. of coal per indicated horsepower per hour. With modern two-cylinder compound engines the consumption is about 2lb. per horsepower per hour; and with three-cylinder engines and 180lb. boiler pressure about 1-1/2lb. Large oil motors consume about 6lb. per b.h.p. hour.


Coal, Stowage of.--
It is usual to allow 40 cubic feet per ton for the stowage of coal in bunkers Oil fuel goes about 44 cubic feet per ton.


Coal Tar.-- See "Varnish."
A raised frame fitted to and above the deck for the hatches, skylights, &c., to rest upon. Sometimes wrongly spelt combings.


Coated.-- Sails stowed and covered up by the coats.
Coats.-- Painted canvas used to cover sails when they are stowed.
A boat common on the Yorkshire coast. Said to run over a sea very dry. The peculiar deep rudder makes them steer well in a sea.


FIG 27.

Cock Bill.-- See "A Cock Bill."
In a man-of-war, part of the ship below water where the middies were berthed, and where the wounded were attended in time of action. A kind of well in the deck aft, common in American yachts and in most small yachts in this country.


Ropes packed up in rings one over the other. To coil away.


Collapsible Boats.--
The collapsible boat which is best known to the public was invented by the Rev. E. Berthon in 1851, and all sizes of craft of this pattern from 6ft. to 30ft. in length for rowing, sailing, and pontoon work are now made by the Berthon Boat Company at their works at Romsey, Hants.
FIG 28.
Berthon boats (Figs. 28 and 29) are made upon longitudinal frames of two skins of canvas. The keel, stem, stern post, gunwale, and longitudinal frames are of rock elm, and the keelson of pitch pine, the canvas skins being coated with a waterproof dressing. The thwarts are pine, supported by stanchions of American elm. When the boat is extended she is kept open by struts of American elm and iron, which work automatically. Those struts are stopped in iron sockets, whilst their heads are made to fit against the under side of the gunwale. The principal features of the construction of the Berthon type are the double skin of canvas and the longitudinal system of the framework. The manufacturers claim that whilst the longitudinal frames or webs, which are broad and flat, and jointed together at the tops of the stem and stern posts, enable the boat to be folded like the leaves of a book, they also give the craft great elasticity, so that they cannot be stove in in the act of lowering.
As a proof of this, at Port Elizabeth, the inventor, the late Rev. E. L. Berthon, caused one of these boats, 20ft. long, to be thrown from the taffrail of a ship into the water, but oven this severe test did not cause the boat any damage. The Berthon Company occasionally make single-skinned boats, but they do not recommend them, and as the originators of the double-skinned system they claim for it the following advantages: A double-skinned boat when filled with people, if perforated, will float, whereas a boat with one skin would sink. They presume that whereas a single-skinned boat, if rent, would simply founder, with the Berthon double skins, if a hole is made, there is the loss of buoyancy in one compartment only, and the others are left to keep the boat afloat, as the space between the skins is divided into compartments. From our own experience we can say that the Berthon boats are very carefully made, and the workmanship and materials used in the construction are both excellent. The weight of a dinghy to comply with the Y.R.A. rules would be about 168lb.
A peculiar form of boat made by the Berthon Company is the Duplex (Fig. 30). This is an ordinary Berthon boat constructed on the bi-part principle ; that is to say, the boat is capable of division transversely into two equal parts amidships.
By this means a dinghy can be stowed in a remarkably small space. Indeed, a boat 12ft. long, 4 ft. 2in. wide, and 1ft. 9in. deep, when shut, can be passed through a hatchway or hole 13in. long by 6in. wide, and can, of course, be stowed in a compartment not shorter than half the length of the boat. It is obvious that for transport this division of the weight, as well as the saving of space, must often be of the greatest importance.
Another form of folding boat, and one which, on account of its extreme simplicity and lightness, has become particularly familiar to yachtsmen, is the James boat (Fig. 31).
This type was invented by Capt. E. C. F. James, and first built by him about twenty years ago. They are manufactured by Messrs. Courtney & Birkett, Southwick, Sussex. Unlike the Berthon boat, the feature of the James boat is that she is covered with a single skin of canvas. The canvas skin, however, is stretched upon longitudinal ribs or chimes made of rock elm in a manner which distributes over the entire frame an evenly divided system of strains, and when the boat is ready for use she possesses remarkable elasticity and strength. A yacht's dinghy on the James principle is only 7in. in thickness when closed, and the struts being hinged in their places and connected with each other, are readily opened and closed even on a dark night without the least trouble. The makers of the James folding boats prefer the single to the double skin, and aver that the former possesses the advantage of being impervious to damp, because no moisture can be retained between the skins, as might be the case with a double skinned boat. The rowing and sailing powers of the James boats are really phenomenal -- twice during the season of 1894 matches were held between rival canvas boats, the results of which were published in the Field of June 23 and August 18 in that year.
The first took place in the Channel between a James folding boat, specially designed for the occasion by Mr. Dixon Kemp, a sort of canvas canoe built by Mr. Sayce, and another canvas boat belonging to Colonel Douglas. The course was from Dover to Calais, the stake being £50 aside, and the conditions that the over-all length should not exceed 12ft. 6in., and the ballast not more than 1cwt., the boats either to be rowed, sailed, or paddled. The trio started from Dover at 9 a.m. in a very light wind, Capt. James rowing his boat, whilst his rivals, Mr. Sayce and Colonel Douglas, paddled away in their canoes. In the afternoon the canoes were well over under the French coast, while the James boat was somewhere in mid-channel. A fresh southwest wind then sprang up, and enabled Capt. James to make a clean board into Calais, and cut off the canoes, which had drifted too far to the westward, and were nipped by the tide and hindered by a choppy sea. After an exciting race, Capt. James finished only five minutes ahead of Mr. Sayce, and won the stakes, whilst Colonel Douglas arrived half an hour later.


After this match the Berthon Boat Company challenged Capt. James to race his folding boat against one of theirs for £100 a side. In this race, which was sailed under Y.R.A. rules, the boats were 12ft. 6in. in length, and the course from Southampton Quay, round the Bell Buoy off Cowes, and back to Southampton. There was a nice breeze from north-north-west, and the pair ran neck and neck down to Netley with the wind dead aft. After a very close race the James boat rounded the lee mark off Cowes fifty-five seconds ahead of the Berthon; in the beat to windward back, however, the James boat obtained a commanding lead, and won by 18-min. 23sec. The race created a good deal of interest at the time, and at Cowes the Prince of Wales and the Duke of York waited in the vicinity of the Bell Buoy to witness the boats round it.
The canvas of which folding boats are made is extremely strong and durable, and although it has been alleged that they are liable to injury by rats and insects when stored for any length of time, there is really no truth in the suggestion. The Berthon Boat Company has supplied the Government with a large number of boats, which have been kept stored for many months in a Government store infested with rats, and although the vermin have actually bred in the folds of the canvas, there has been no instance of any injury having been done to the material. Frequently canvas boats have been driven against rocks and pierheads without receiving serious injury, and it is worthy of note that if a cut or rent is made in the canvas it can easily be mended by a sailmaker, shoemaker, or anyone accustomed to the use of a needle.
Of course, every description of canvas boat must be liable under certain circumstances to be torn by snags or other sharp-edged obstructions,, and care must be exercised in using them.

FIG. 31.-- The James Folding BOAT.


Another useful canvas folding boat is the Osgood (Fig. 32). She is said to be very stiff, light, strong, very portable, very light draft, and suitable for broads. This boat folds up concertina-like into small compass. Price of a 12ft. boat, complete with all fittings and receptacle, £9 10s. Osgood boats were made by Von Saal and Co., 9 and 10, Australian-avenue, London, E.C.
An eye or bight of a shroud, stay, or rope to go over the masthead as the collar of the forestay. Also a ring on a bolt.


Collier.-- A vessel employed to carry coal.
Collision.-- When one vessel comes into contact with another.
Colours.-- Flags denoting nationality, ownership, or other identity.
Comb.-- The crest part of a wave.
Comber.-- A big surf-like wave.
Combings.-- See "Coamings."
Come Aboard, Sir.--
A seaman's laconic speech when he reports his arrival on board to an officer in charge after leave.


Come no Nearer.--
An order to the helmsman not to bring the vessel nearer the wind.


Come To.--
To fly up in the wind; to come nearer or closer to the wind; to luff. Generally used when a vessel comes nearer the wind after having falling off the wind.


Come Up.--
Generally to slacken up. Whilst hauling on the fall of a tackle and the order comes, "Avast hauling there!" the hand that has to belay sings out, "Come up behind!"; all hands instantly release the fall, so that the one who has to belay may catch the turn round the belaying pin or cavel without "losing any." (See "Hold on the Fore Side" Mid "Belay.") In slang an admonition to cease fooling.


Come Up, To.--
A vessel is said to come up when the wind frees her so that she can head nearer her course, or look, or point her course. In beating, a helmsman in reporting the progress made by the vessel may say, "She has come up two points this tack, sir," according to the extent of the wind freeing; if the wind came more ahead, he might say she has broken off or fallen off two points, &c.


Come Up With.-- To overtake.
An officer appointed to take the command of a squadron of ships.
His rank, whilst he holds the appointment, comes next to the captain of the fleet in the Navy list; neither does the Commodore hold precedence of a captain who is his senior, and would cease to hold the advantages of his office should a senior arrive within the limits of his station.
A rank conferred by clubs upon members; and there are Commodores, Vice-Commodores, and Rear-Commodores. Their duties are to see that the laws of the club, especially those that apply to matters afloat, are properly carried out. Commodores fly the broad pennant or swallow tail burgee. (Sea "Burgee.")
The structure with sliding roof which forms the entrance from the deck to the cabins below.


Compass Bowl.-- The bowl within the binnacle containing the compass.
Compass Card.--
A circle divided into 32 parts, called points; and each part is again divided into 4 parts, and the whole is divided into 360 degrees.


It is commonly believed that the mariner's compass was introduced into Europe in the fifteenth century, but it seems to have been well known in a primitive form in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. In one of the popular songs written in the time of King John, it is related that the sailors who went on long voyages to Friesland and the East, knew their way by observing the polar star, but, when the sky was covered with clouds, and they could no longer see the stars of heaven, they had a contrivance which consisted of a needle of iron put through a piece of cork so that one end remained out. This they rubbed with the lodestone, and then placed it in a vessel of water, and the needle pointed without error to the polar star. This formed a primitive but fairly perfect mariner's compass. If an ordinary needle be rubbed on a magnet and gently dropped into a glass of water it will float and point to the north. (See "Fluid Compass.")


Compass Point.-- The 32nd part of 360 degrees or practically 11-1/4 degrees.
Complement.-- The full number; the whole ship's crew.
Composition for a Boat's Bottom.--
Day's composition is said to prevent the growth of weeds, barnacles, &c.

The boat should have & coat of common varnish first, and the composition should be applied before the varnish is quite dry. There are many good makes of anti-fouling composition, such as Holzapfell's, Blake's, Jesty's, &c Only a part of the boat should be varnished at a time, or the varnish will dry before the composition can be put on. One gallon carefully put on will cover about 400 square feet or the immersed surface of a 10-tonner. The composition should be kept well stirred whilst being used, as the ingredients are heavy, and soon settle to the bottom. Day's address is Limehouse, London.

Peacock's composition has been used on iron ships with good effect, The composition can be obtained of Messrs. Peacock and Buchanan, Southampton. This composition should be applied in the same manner as Jesty's. Two, three, or four coats of black varnish, or coal tar, should be first put on. The plates of an iron yacht should be thoroughly cleaned of rust &c. before applying the varnish. (See "Coal Tar or Black Varnish.")

The Protector Fluid Company, 8, Leadenhall street, E.C., have a poisonous composition, said to very effectually prevent the growth of barnacles.

Jesty's composition is in great request for coating the bottoms of iron and wooden ships. Before applying it give the vessels one or two coats of coal tar thinned with turpentine; when this has dried on apply a couple of coats of the composition ; a priming of black varnish made by Mr. Jesty is sometimes used instead of coal tar. The composition should not be put on over paint. It must be kept well stirred in the pot whilst it is being applied, as some of its ingredients are very heavy. The Jesty manufactory is at Gosport, Hants.

Blake and Son, of Gosport, manufacture a composition which is in much request.



A contrivance to prevent the chain cable being veered too quickly, or to stop its veering altogether.


Conduct Money.--
Money kept back from a seaman's wages, but given up in whole at the end of an engagement if the seaman's conduct has been good; generally the amount kept back is 2s. per week, and a fine to that amount is levied for an offence.


Directing a steersman in the use or management of the helm, Telling him how to steer.


Contrary Wind.-- A wind that blows adversely down a vessel's course.
Copper Bottomed.--
The bottom of a ship sheathed with copper. According to Charnock (Vol. III., page 20), copper sheathing was first introduced in the Navy as a remedy against the attacks of worms in 1758. (See "Sheathing.")


Copper Fastened.-- Fastened with copper bolts and nails.
A small wickerwork boat covered with hide used by the ancient Britons.


A general term used to denote the rope used in the rigging of a ship.


A term in yacht parlance synonymous with amateur. The term Corinthian half a century ago was commonly applied to the aristocratic patrons of sports, some of which, such as pugilism, are not now the fashion. The name was adopted in consequence of the similarity between the fashionable young men of Corinth who emulated the feats of athletes, &c,, and their modern prototypes.

The qualifications of a "Corinthian" sailor are variously defined. The Royal Alfred Yacht Club formerly enjoined that in all matches the amateur element shall consist of "members of the club, their sons, or members of a royal, foreign, or recognised yacht club, or naval officers."

This club in 1895 adopted the following qualification: :

"A person shall not be considered an amateur who is, or has been, employed for pay in any capacity on board a yacht or other vessel, commissioned officers of the Royal Navy, Royal Marines, and Royal Naval Reserve excepted ; also officers of the Mercantile Marine it they have never served for pay on board a yacht and are members of a recognised yacht club, but not anyone who is by trade or employment for wages a mechanic, artisan, labourer, or servant."

Anyone who is not, at the time being, working at a trade, or who is not an artisan, mechanic, labourer or menial, is generally regarded as a qualified amateur. A ship's carpenter is reckoned as a paid hand. Sometimes a steward and cook are not but they are not allowed to work in such cases if retained on board.

Some clubs in Corinthian matches do not allow any paid hand to be on board; others only allow yachts of 15 tons and under one paid hand, who is not permitted to touch the tiller. A later and more suitable plan is to have paid hands in the proportion set forth in the Y.R.A. rules. In all Corinthian matches an amateur must steer. (See also "Amateur.")


Light, buoyant, easily set in motion by the waves ; floating with a high side out of the water, &c.


Cornette.-- A swallowtailed flag.
A flat-bottomed boat or punt used for fishing. The cots used on the River Shannon are managed by two men with pole and paddle. They have long overhangs, some sheer, and somewhat slight proportion of beam. Their form is adapted to salmon fishing in rapid, rough shallow water. Particulars of their cost can be obtained from Messrs. Enright, fishing tackle makers, Castle Connell, Ireland. (See "Wexford Flat-bottomed Boats.")


The framework hinged to the lining of a yacht in the forecastle to form the bed when hammocks are not slung.


Counter.-- The projecting part of a vessel abaft the sternpost.
Direction; the direction in which a vessel moves ; the direction from one point to another point which a vessel has to reach. The distance yachts have to sail in a match at a regatta.


Courses.-- The lower square sails of a ship.
Covering Board.--
The outside dock plank fitted over the timber heads. See "Plank Sheer."


The man who steers and has charge of a boat and her crew. Pronounced "cox'n."


When a vessel tumbles down under a heavy press of canvas, or when she sags to leeward badly.


Cracking On.-- Carrying a large quantity of sail.
Cracks in a Mast or other Spars, To Stop.--
When the spar is quite dry, run in marine glue; when the glue is hard, scrape out some of it, and stop with putty, coloured to imitate the colour of the wood.


A vessel; also need in the plural, thus a number of craft, or a lot of craft, means a number of vessels.


Not stiff under canvas; a boat that can be heeled or listed very easily ; generally a dangerous boat.


An iron hoop baud with eyes, fitted to bowsprit ends or the ends of other spars.


Creek.-- An inlet of the sea.
Crests.-- The top edges of waves.
A ship's complement, and including every man employed on board in any capacity whatsoever, distinct from passengers. (See under "Seaman.")


Crimps.-- Agents for engaging seaman; a vocation not in good repute.
Cringle.-- A metal thimble worked into the corners and leeches of sails.
Cripple, A.-- A vessel that does not carry her canvas stiffly.
Cross Chocks.--
Pieces of wood used for filling in between lower futtocks where their heels do not meet on the top of the keel.


The Cross-jack-yard is the lowest yard on the mizen mast. Pronounced "cro'-jack."


Cross Sea.--
Waves that come from divers directions, usually caused by sudden shifts of wind when it is blowing heavily.


The spreaders for topmast shrouds. (See "Spreader" and also "Strut.")


A number of lines attached to one line, and spreading out to support an awning.


Crown of an Anchor.--
The part of an anchor where the arms are joined to the shank.


Crow's Nest.--
A place of shelter at the topgallant masthead for a look out man, used by whalers in northern latitudes.


The support for a boom when the sail is stowed something in this form :

A is a wooden support for boom, BB iron uprights ; the upright parts, BB, fit into sockets on the taffrail. Crutches are sometimes made of two cross pieces of wood, thus: X; or an iron Y ; but these forms only admit of the boom being trimmed amidships, whereas with the form shown first the boom may be trimmed port or starboard, leaving more deck space and freer access to the companion when required. In schooners the crutch for the fore boom is generally so formed ; also a similar crutch is used to put the tiller in when the vessel is moored to keep it from flying about, and when by lashing the tiller lines across the vessel to either rail the passage fore and aft would be inconveniently obstructed. A crutch thus: Y is used to support the middle of the boom when' the sail is stowed and not slung by the peak halyards. A crutch is also the metal fork need instead of tholes in a row boat.


Cubic Measure of Water.--
One gallon contains 277.274 cubic inches, or 0.16 of a cubic foot. One cubic foot contains 1728 cubic inches, or 6.233 gallons. One ton of salt water contains 35 cubic feet. One ton of fresh water contains 35.9 cubic feet. A ton weight is equal to 2240lb. (See "Decimal Equivalents" and "Water.")


The moving of the water in certain directions. To ascertain the rate or direction of a current when not at anchor or when becalmed, in a fog, or out of sight of fixed objects, see "Drifting."


A boat heavier than a gig, and used in bad weather when the lighter boat might get swamped.


A vessel with one mast rigged with mainsail, foresail, jib, and topsail, as shown in the accompanying sketch, and known as the "national rig." A cutter's sails are termed "fore-and-aft" sails, because they are always tacked and sheeted in a fore-and-aft direction by the same corners in contradistinction to sails which are tacked and sheeted from alternate as square sails are. (Fig. 34.)

FIG 34.

Formerly cutters carried a large square sail and square topsail or raffee; but those are now obsolete. A sloop as now understood differs from a cutter in only having one headsail, properly termed a foresail, instead of two headsails -- namely, a jib and a foresail.







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