Manual of Yacht and Boat Sailing and
(11th and final edition, 1913)
Cheek - Cutter.
- Cheek Blocks.--
- A sheave fitted on a spar inside a sort of
cleat, as the cheek block for topsail sheet on the
end of a gaff.
- Cheeks of the Mast.-- The hounds.
- It is an old custom in yacht racing for the
losing yacht as soon as possible after the finish
of a race to cheer the winner. The etiquette is as
follows : The master of the losing yacht says to
his crew: "Now, boys, give the Istria a cheer'' ;
his crew then line up on the side nearest that
vessel and the mate hails : -"Istria, Ahoy ! hip,
hip, hip, hurrah ! hip, hip, hip, hurrah! hip hip,
hip, hurrah!" Then the winning yacht's crew
similarly line up end hail the losing yacht and
respond with three cheers given in the same way.
The vanquished crew then give a single "hip, hip,
hurrah!" to "come up with," or finish off. (See
"Man Ship.") Sometimes a little ill feeling between
crews may arise in the course of a race, but the
owner should not permit any feeling to cause his
vessel to omit to cheer a winning vessel.
- In very light winds, if a cloud passes overhead
and a puff comes out of it, it is called a
chill-probably on account of its coldness.
Chime or Chine.--
- The part of a waterway on the deck of a ship
which joins the spirketting. The bilge joint of a
barge is also termed a chime or chine.
Chinese Lug.-- A lug sail with battens.
- Chips.-- A nickname for a ship's
- Chock.-- A block or wedge of wood.
- Chock a Block.--
- Said of two blocks when, in hoisting or
hauling, the two blocks of a tackle are brought
close together. Generally when two things are
brought so close together that they cannot be got
- Full to the brim. Frequently used in
close-hauled sailing to let the helmsman know that
the sails are full enough, and he need use no more
weather helm. (See "Ramping Full.")
Chock Home.-- Close up.
- A short, steep sea, which makes a vessel
continuously pitch and 'scend.
Chuck.-- To throw.
- Chuckle-headed.-- Full or bluff in the bow;
- Chuck to Windward.--
- A weather-going tide is said to chuck a vessel
to windward, and the contrary a lee-going tide.
- Circumference of a Circle.--
- The diameter multiplied by 3.14159 ; in algebra
denoted by the Greek letter pi or perimeter.
- A thick strake of wood worked inside a vessel
under the shelf.
- A kind of wedge vice, used in boat building
ding to hold the plank together. Various
contrivances of wood or metal used in fitting up a
vessel or in fixing parts in her construction.
Clap on Canvas.--
- To put on more canvas. "Clap on here!" is a
request frequently made to idlers to assist in
hauling on a rope.
Claw.-- To hang well to windward, as to "claw
off a lee shore."
- Claw to Windward.--
- To beat to windward under difficulties. To claw
off a lee shore is to boat off and avoid getting
Clean Full.-- Barely close-hauled when all the
sails are full.
Clear for Going Afloat.--
- A question often asked when work is being done
on deck, and the vessel has to be put about: "Are
ye all clear there for going about?"
- Pieces of wood with one or more arms fastened
to spars, &c., for belaying to, or to prevent
ropes slipping, &c, (See "Thumb Cleats" and
"Cruickshanks' Patent Safety Cleats.")
Clench Work (spelt also "clencher," "clincher,"
and sometimes "clinker.") --
- In boat building when the edges of the plank
overlap, forming lands.
- The lower corners of a square sail ; in
fore-and-aft sails only the lower after corner is
called the clew.
Clew Lines.-- Clew garnets. Ropes used for
hauling up the clews of sails.
- Clew Up.--
- To haul up a sail by the clew lines for
furling, &c. Also used as a slang term for shut
up or cease.
- Clinch .--
- To fasten a rope by a half hitch, and seize the
end hack to the other part; a method adopted with
very large ropes or hawsers after they have to be
bent to rings, &c. in a hurry. To clinch is
also to beat the end of a bolt or rivet until it
forms a head; or to turn the end of a nail in so
that it will not draw.
- Clincher Work.-- See "Clench."
- The hard cinder which forms on furnace bars.
Sometimes wrongly used for clincher work in boat
building. (See" Clench Work.")
- An instrument for measuring the angle of
inclination or the extent of heel a ship has under
canvas or whilst rolling.
- Clip for Chain of Centre-Board.--
- Captain F. du Boulay, of the Bembridge Sailing
Club, recommends a clip made of galvanised iron as
shown in Fig. 25 , and fastened just behind the
sheave over which the chain works. One of the crew
who has hold of the chain can, lowering his hand,
drop the chain into the clip and jam it, but by
keeping the chain level he can raise or lower his
- FIG 25.
- Clip Hook.--
- A double hook (hinged below the eye) whose
parts overlap when attached to a ring, &c. A
hook not much in favour, as it so frequently breaks
or gets half detached.
- A fine ship ; first applied to the sharp bowed
ships that sailed out of Baltimore, U.S.
- Clipper Stem or Bow.-- An overhanging stem or
- Clock Calm.-- So calm and still that the
ticking of a clock could be heard.
- Close Aboard.--
- Near to, as the land is said to be close aboard
when a vessel has approached it very closely.
- With all the sheets trimmed flat aft, and every
rope that helps extend the sails hauled taut.
Hauled as close to the wind as the sails will admit
without shaking their luffs. When a square-rigged
ship is close-hauled she is about from five to six
points off the wind. A fore-and-aft schooner, with
everything nicely trimmed for racing, will lie
within four and a half points of the wind ; a
cutter within four and a quarter points. This, of
course, supposes the water to be smooth and the
wind of what is known as "whole sail strength." In
rough water a vessel cannot be sailed so close ; hi
the Atlantic race between the Cambria and
Dauntless, the former, although she had head winds
for a large part of the time, for two reasons was
never hauled up closer than six points; generally
there was too much sea to admit of it without being
half hove to, and in such long passages it was
thought better to sail her along hard on the chance
of the wind freeing; or if it headed her she could
have been put on the other tack. (See "Wind.")
while in wind, push hover over to opposite side,
and hook again. Until well settled down to the
work, it is best to keep the lever approximately as
desired by bearing against it with the knee or the
foot. Should half the angle be sufficient, the
lever may be allowed to come hack till it takes
against the outer edge of the little sliding cap.
When the board is to be got rid of temporarily for
paddling or to clear a shoal, it is turned clear up
under the bottom, as shown by the dotted line in
one of the cuts, by taking bold with the lever m
one of the outer holes of the three in the shaft.
- Close Reefed.--
- When the last reef is taken in, generally the
fourth reef; but some modern yachts with laced
mainsails have only three reef hands, and it is
thought that when the fourth reef is wanted that it
is time to set the trysail.
- Close to Wind.--
- Close hauled. As close to the wind as the sails
will bear without lifting.
- The outfit given to a yacht's crew by the
owner, consisting of trousers, frocks, caps, shoes,
and neckerchief. When the yacht is paid off the men
take the clothes with them, but if a man is
discharged for misconduct, he is made to leave his
clothes behind. Under any circumstances the men
have no legal right to the clothes if the owner
chose to retain them, as it is only a kind of
- Clothes Lines.--
- A sail is said to be across a clothes lines
when it is girted by a rope. Lines used on board
men-of-war for drying the sailors' clothes on
- Cloth in the Wind, A.--
- When the foremost cloth or luff of a sail is
shaking through the vessel being brought too near
the wind. A man is said to be three cloths in the
wind when intoxicated.
- Clove Hitch.--
- Two turns of a rope round a spar, &c., the
ends coming out under the middle part, one on each
- Coach Roof.-- See "Booby Hatch."
- Coal, Consumption of.--
- With engines of the old type a steamer consumed
from 4lb. to 6lb. of coal per indicated horsepower
per hour. With modern two-cylinder compound engines
the consumption is about 2lb. per horsepower per
hour; and with three-cylinder engines and 180lb.
boiler pressure about 1-1/2lb. Large oil motors
consume about 6lb. per b.h.p. hour.
- Coal, Stowage of.--
- It is usual to allow 40 cubic feet per ton for
the stowage of coal in bunkers Oil fuel goes about
44 cubic feet per ton.
- Coal Tar.-- See "Varnish."
- A raised frame fitted to and above the deck for
the hatches, skylights, &c., to rest upon.
Sometimes wrongly spelt combings.
- Coated.-- Sails stowed and covered up by the
- Coats.-- Painted canvas used to cover sails
when they are stowed.
- A boat common on the Yorkshire coast. Said to
run over a sea very dry. The peculiar deep rudder
makes them steer well in a sea.
- Cock Bill.-- See "A Cock Bill."
- In a man-of-war, part of the ship below water
where the middies were berthed, and where the
wounded were attended in time of action. A kind of
well in the deck aft, common in American yachts and
in most small yachts in this country.
- Ropes packed up in rings one over the other. To
- Collapsible Boats.--
- The collapsible boat which is best known to the
public was invented by the Rev. E. Berthon in 1851,
and all sizes of craft of this pattern from 6ft. to
30ft. in length for rowing, sailing, and pontoon
work are now made by the Berthon Boat Company at
their works at Romsey, Hants.
- Berthon boats (Figs. 28 and 29) are made upon
longitudinal frames of two skins of canvas. The
keel, stem, stern post, gunwale, and longitudinal
frames are of rock elm, and the keelson of pitch
pine, the canvas skins being coated with a
waterproof dressing. The thwarts are pine,
supported by stanchions of American elm. When the
boat is extended she is kept open by struts of
American elm and iron, which work automatically.
Those struts are stopped in iron sockets, whilst
their heads are made to fit against the under side
of the gunwale. The principal features of the
construction of the Berthon type are the double
skin of canvas and the longitudinal system of the
framework. The manufacturers claim that whilst the
longitudinal frames or webs, which are broad and
flat, and jointed together at the tops of the stem
and stern posts, enable the boat to be folded like
the leaves of a book, they also give the craft
great elasticity, so that they cannot be stove in
in the act of lowering.
- As a proof of this, at Port Elizabeth, the
inventor, the late Rev. E. L. Berthon, caused one
of these boats, 20ft. long, to be thrown from the
taffrail of a ship into the water, but oven this
severe test did not cause the boat any damage. The
Berthon Company occasionally make single-skinned
boats, but they do not recommend them, and as the
originators of the double-skinned system they claim
for it the following advantages: A double-skinned
boat when filled with people, if perforated, will
float, whereas a boat with one skin would sink.
They presume that whereas a single-skinned boat, if
rent, would simply founder, with the Berthon double
skins, if a hole is made, there is the loss of
buoyancy in one compartment only, and the others
are left to keep the boat afloat, as the space
between the skins is divided into compartments.
From our own experience we can say that the Berthon
boats are very carefully made, and the workmanship
and materials used in the construction are both
excellent. The weight of a dinghy to comply with
the Y.R.A. rules would be about 168lb.
- A peculiar form of boat made by the Berthon
Company is the Duplex (Fig. 30). This is an
ordinary Berthon boat constructed on the bi-part
principle ; that is to say, the boat is capable of
division transversely into two equal parts
- By this means a dinghy can be stowed in a
remarkably small space. Indeed, a boat 12ft. long,
4 ft. 2in. wide, and 1ft. 9in. deep, when shut, can
be passed through a hatchway or hole 13in. long by
6in. wide, and can, of course, be stowed in a
compartment not shorter than half the length of the
boat. It is obvious that for transport this
division of the weight, as well as the saving of
space, must often be of the greatest
- Another form of folding boat, and one which, on
account of its extreme simplicity and lightness,
has become particularly familiar to yachtsmen, is
the James boat (Fig. 31).
- This type was invented by Capt. E. C. F. James,
and first built by him about twenty years ago. They
are manufactured by Messrs. Courtney & Birkett,
Southwick, Sussex. Unlike the Berthon boat, the
feature of the James boat is that she is covered
with a single skin of canvas. The canvas skin,
however, is stretched upon longitudinal ribs or
chimes made of rock elm in a manner which
distributes over the entire frame an evenly divided
system of strains, and when the boat is ready for
use she possesses remarkable elasticity and
strength. A yacht's dinghy on the James principle
is only 7in. in thickness when closed, and the
struts being hinged in their places and connected
with each other, are readily opened and closed even
on a dark night without the least trouble. The
makers of the James folding boats prefer the single
to the double skin, and aver that the former
possesses the advantage of being impervious to
damp, because no moisture can be retained between
the skins, as might be the case with a double
skinned boat. The rowing and sailing powers of the
James boats are really phenomenal -- twice during
the season of 1894 matches were held between rival
canvas boats, the results of which were published
in the Field of June 23 and August 18 in that
- The first took place in the Channel between a
James folding boat, specially designed for the
occasion by Mr. Dixon Kemp, a sort of canvas canoe
built by Mr. Sayce, and another canvas boat
belonging to Colonel Douglas. The course was from
Dover to Calais, the stake being £50 aside,
and the conditions that the over-all length should
not exceed 12ft. 6in., and the ballast not more
than 1cwt., the boats either to be rowed, sailed,
or paddled. The trio started from Dover at 9 a.m.
in a very light wind, Capt. James rowing his boat,
whilst his rivals, Mr. Sayce and Colonel Douglas,
paddled away in their canoes. In the afternoon the
canoes were well over under the French coast, while
the James boat was somewhere in mid-channel. A
fresh southwest wind then sprang up, and enabled
Capt. James to make a clean board into Calais, and
cut off the canoes, which had drifted too far to
the westward, and were nipped by the tide and
hindered by a choppy sea. After an exciting race,
Capt. James finished only five minutes ahead of Mr.
Sayce, and won the stakes, whilst Colonel Douglas
arrived half an hour later.
- After this match the Berthon Boat Company
challenged Capt. James to race his folding boat
against one of theirs for £100 a side. In this
race, which was sailed under Y.R.A. rules, the
boats were 12ft. 6in. in length, and the course
from Southampton Quay, round the Bell Buoy off
Cowes, and back to Southampton. There was a nice
breeze from north-north-west, and the pair ran neck
and neck down to Netley with the wind dead aft.
After a very close race the James boat rounded the
lee mark off Cowes fifty-five seconds ahead of the
Berthon; in the beat to windward back, however, the
James boat obtained a commanding lead, and won by
18-min. 23sec. The race created a good deal of
interest at the time, and at Cowes the Prince of
Wales and the Duke of York waited in the vicinity
of the Bell Buoy to witness the boats round
- The canvas of which folding boats are made is
extremely strong and durable, and although it has
been alleged that they are liable to injury by rats
and insects when stored for any length of time,
there is really no truth in the suggestion. The
Berthon Boat Company has supplied the Government
with a large number of boats, which have been kept
stored for many months in a Government store
infested with rats, and although the vermin have
actually bred in the folds of the canvas, there has
been no instance of any injury having been done to
the material. Frequently canvas boats have been
driven against rocks and pierheads without
receiving serious injury, and it is worthy of note
that if a cut or rent is made in the canvas it can
easily be mended by a sailmaker, shoemaker, or
anyone accustomed to the use of a needle.
- Of course, every description of canvas boat
must be liable under certain circumstances to be
torn by snags or other sharp-edged obstructions,,
and care must be exercised in using them.
FIG. 31.-- The James Folding BOAT.
FIG 32.-- OSGOOD CANVAS Folding BOAT.
- Another useful canvas folding boat is the
Osgood (Fig. 32). She is said to be very stiff,
light, strong, very portable, very light draft, and
suitable for broads. This boat folds up
concertina-like into small compass. Price of a
12ft. boat, complete with all fittings and
receptacle, £9 10s. Osgood boats were made by
Von Saal and Co., 9 and 10, Australian-avenue,
- An eye or bight of a shroud, stay, or rope to
go over the masthead as the collar of the forestay.
Also a ring on a bolt.
- Collier.-- A vessel employed to carry
- Collision.-- When one vessel comes into contact
- Colours.-- Flags denoting nationality,
ownership, or other identity.
- Comb.-- The crest part of a wave.
- Comber.-- A big surf-like wave.
- Combings.-- See "Coamings."
- Come Aboard, Sir.--
- A seaman's laconic speech when he reports his
arrival on board to an officer in charge after
- Come no Nearer.--
- An order to the helmsman not to bring the
vessel nearer the wind.
- Come To.--
- To fly up in the wind; to come nearer or closer
to the wind; to luff. Generally used when a vessel
comes nearer the wind after having falling off the
- Come Up.--
- Generally to slacken up. Whilst hauling on the
fall of a tackle and the order comes, "Avast
hauling there!" the hand that has to belay sings
out, "Come up behind!"; all hands instantly release
the fall, so that the one who has to belay may
catch the turn round the belaying pin or cavel
without "losing any." (See "Hold on the Fore Side"
Mid "Belay.") In slang an admonition to cease
- Come Up, To.--
- A vessel is said to come up when the wind frees
her so that she can head nearer her course, or
look, or point her course. In beating, a helmsman
in reporting the progress made by the vessel may
say, "She has come up two points this tack, sir,"
according to the extent of the wind freeing; if the
wind came more ahead, he might say she has broken
off or fallen off two points, &c.
- Come Up With.-- To overtake.
- An officer appointed to take the command of a
squadron of ships.
- His rank, whilst he holds the appointment,
comes next to the captain of the fleet in the Navy
list; neither does the Commodore hold precedence of
a captain who is his senior, and would cease to
hold the advantages of his office should a senior
arrive within the limits of his station.
- A rank conferred by clubs upon members; and
there are Commodores, Vice-Commodores, and
Rear-Commodores. Their duties are to see that the
laws of the club, especially those that apply to
matters afloat, are properly carried out.
Commodores fly the broad pennant or swallow tail
burgee. (Sea "Burgee.")
- The structure with sliding roof which forms the
entrance from the deck to the cabins below.
- Compass Bowl.-- The bowl within the binnacle
containing the compass.
- Compass Card.--
- A circle divided into 32 parts, called points;
and each part is again divided into 4 parts, and
the whole is divided into 360 degrees.
It is commonly believed that the mariner's
compass was introduced into Europe in the fifteenth
century, but it seems to have been well known in a
primitive form in the twelfth and thirteenth
centuries. In one of the popular songs written in
the time of King John, it is related that the
sailors who went on long voyages to Friesland and
the East, knew their way by observing the polar
star, but, when the sky was covered with clouds,
and they could no longer see the stars of heaven,
they had a contrivance which consisted of a needle
of iron put through a piece of cork so that one end
remained out. This they rubbed with the lodestone,
and then placed it in a vessel of water, and the
needle pointed without error to the polar star.
This formed a primitive but fairly perfect
mariner's compass. If an ordinary needle be rubbed
on a magnet and gently dropped into a glass of
water it will float and point to the north. (See
- Compass Point.-- The 32nd part of 360 degrees
or practically 11-1/4 degrees.
- Complement.-- The full number; the whole ship's
- Composition for a Boat's Bottom.--
- Day's composition is said to prevent the growth
of weeds, barnacles, &c.
The boat should have & coat of common
varnish first, and the composition should be
applied before the varnish is quite dry. There are
many good makes of anti-fouling composition, such
as Holzapfell's, Blake's, Jesty's, &c Only a
part of the boat should be varnished at a time, or
the varnish will dry before the composition can be
put on. One gallon carefully put on will cover
about 400 square feet or the immersed surface of a
10-tonner. The composition should be kept well
stirred whilst being used, as the ingredients are
heavy, and soon settle to the bottom. Day's address
is Limehouse, London.
Peacock's composition has been used on iron
ships with good effect, The composition can be
obtained of Messrs. Peacock and Buchanan,
Southampton. This composition should be applied in
the same manner as Jesty's. Two, three, or four
coats of black varnish, or coal tar, should be
first put on. The plates of an iron yacht should be
thoroughly cleaned of rust &c. before applying
the varnish. (See "Coal Tar or Black Varnish.")
The Protector Fluid Company, 8, Leadenhall
street, E.C., have a poisonous composition, said to
very effectually prevent the growth of
Jesty's composition is in great request for
coating the bottoms of iron and wooden ships.
Before applying it give the vessels one or two
coats of coal tar thinned with turpentine; when
this has dried on apply a couple of coats of the
composition ; a priming of black varnish made by
Mr. Jesty is sometimes used instead of coal tar.
The composition should not be put on over paint. It
must be kept well stirred in the pot whilst it is
being applied, as some of its ingredients are very
heavy. The Jesty manufactory is at Gosport,
Blake and Son, of Gosport, manufacture a
composition which is in much request.
- A contrivance to prevent the chain cable being
veered too quickly, or to stop its veering
- Conduct Money.--
- Money kept back from a seaman's wages, but
given up in whole at the end of an engagement if
the seaman's conduct has been good; generally the
amount kept back is 2s. per week, and a fine to
that amount is levied for an offence.
- Directing a steersman in the use or management
of the helm, Telling him how to steer.
- Contrary Wind.-- A wind that blows adversely
down a vessel's course.
- Copper Bottomed.--
- The bottom of a ship sheathed with copper.
According to Charnock (Vol. III., page 20), copper
sheathing was first introduced in the Navy as a
remedy against the attacks of worms in 1758. (See
- Copper Fastened.-- Fastened with copper bolts
- A small wickerwork boat covered with hide used
by the ancient Britons.
- A general term used to denote the rope used in
the rigging of a ship.
- A term in yacht parlance synonymous with
amateur. The term Corinthian half a century ago was
commonly applied to the aristocratic patrons of
sports, some of which, such as pugilism, are not
now the fashion. The name was adopted in
consequence of the similarity between the
fashionable young men of Corinth who emulated the
feats of athletes, &c,, and their modern
The qualifications of a "Corinthian" sailor are
variously defined. The Royal Alfred Yacht Club
formerly enjoined that in all matches the amateur
element shall consist of "members of the club,
their sons, or members of a royal, foreign, or
recognised yacht club, or naval officers."
This club in 1895 adopted the following
"A person shall not be considered an amateur who
is, or has been, employed for pay in any capacity
on board a yacht or other vessel, commissioned
officers of the Royal Navy, Royal Marines, and
Royal Naval Reserve excepted ; also officers of the
Mercantile Marine it they have never served for pay
on board a yacht and are members of a recognised
yacht club, but not anyone who is by trade or
employment for wages a mechanic, artisan, labourer,
Anyone who is not, at the time being, working at
a trade, or who is not an artisan, mechanic,
labourer or menial, is generally regarded as a
qualified amateur. A ship's carpenter is reckoned
as a paid hand. Sometimes a steward and cook are
not but they are not allowed to work in such cases
if retained on board.
Some clubs in Corinthian matches do not allow
any paid hand to be on board; others only allow
yachts of 15 tons and under one paid hand, who is
not permitted to touch the tiller. A later and more
suitable plan is to have paid hands in the
proportion set forth in the Y.R.A. rules. In all
Corinthian matches an amateur must steer. (See also
- Light, buoyant, easily set in motion by the
waves ; floating with a high side out of the water,
- Cornette.-- A swallowtailed flag.
- A flat-bottomed boat or punt used for fishing.
The cots used on the River Shannon are managed by
two men with pole and paddle. They have long
overhangs, some sheer, and somewhat slight
proportion of beam. Their form is adapted to salmon
fishing in rapid, rough shallow water. Particulars
of their cost can be obtained from Messrs. Enright,
fishing tackle makers, Castle Connell, Ireland.
(See "Wexford Flat-bottomed Boats.")
- The framework hinged to the lining of a yacht
in the forecastle to form the bed when hammocks are
- Counter.-- The projecting part of a vessel
abaft the sternpost.
- Direction; the direction in which a vessel
moves ; the direction from one point to another
point which a vessel has to reach. The distance
yachts have to sail in a match at a regatta.
- Courses.-- The lower square sails of a
- Covering Board.--
- The outside dock plank fitted over the timber
heads. See "Plank Sheer."
- The man who steers and has charge of a boat and
her crew. Pronounced "cox'n."
- When a vessel tumbles down under a heavy press
of canvas, or when she sags to leeward badly.
- Cracking On.-- Carrying a large quantity of
- Cracks in a Mast or other Spars, To
- When the spar is quite dry, run in marine glue;
when the glue is hard, scrape out some of it, and
stop with putty, coloured to imitate the colour of
- A vessel; also need in the plural, thus a
number of craft, or a lot of craft, means a number
- Not stiff under canvas; a boat that can be
heeled or listed very easily ; generally a
- An iron hoop baud with eyes, fitted to bowsprit
ends or the ends of other spars.
- Creek.-- An inlet of the sea.
- Crests.-- The top edges of waves.
- A ship's complement, and including every man
employed on board in any capacity whatsoever,
distinct from passengers. (See under "Seaman.")
- Crimps.-- Agents for engaging seaman; a
vocation not in good repute.
- Cringle.-- A metal thimble worked into the
corners and leeches of sails.
- Cripple, A.-- A vessel that does not carry her
- Cross Chocks.--
- Pieces of wood used for filling in between
lower futtocks where their heels do not meet on the
top of the keel.
- The Cross-jack-yard is the lowest yard on the
mizen mast. Pronounced "cro'-jack."
- Cross Sea.--
- Waves that come from divers directions, usually
caused by sudden shifts of wind when it is blowing
- The spreaders for topmast shrouds. (See
"Spreader" and also "Strut.")
- A number of lines attached to one line, and
spreading out to support an awning.
- Crown of an Anchor.--
- The part of an anchor where the arms are joined
to the shank.
- Crow's Nest.--
- A place of shelter at the topgallant masthead
for a look out man, used by whalers in northern
- The support for a boom when the sail is stowed
something in this form :
A is a wooden support for boom, BB iron uprights
; the upright parts, BB, fit into sockets on the
taffrail. Crutches are sometimes made of two cross
pieces of wood, thus: X; or an iron Y ; but these
forms only admit of the boom being trimmed
amidships, whereas with the form shown first the
boom may be trimmed port or starboard, leaving more
deck space and freer access to the companion when
required. In schooners the crutch for the fore boom
is generally so formed ; also a similar crutch is
used to put the tiller in when the vessel is moored
to keep it from flying about, and when by lashing
the tiller lines across the vessel to either rail
the passage fore and aft would be inconveniently
obstructed. A crutch thus: Y is used to support the
middle of the boom when' the sail is stowed and not
slung by the peak halyards. A crutch is also the
metal fork need instead of tholes in a row
- Cubic Measure of Water.--
- One gallon contains 277.274 cubic inches, or
0.16 of a cubic foot. One cubic foot contains 1728
cubic inches, or 6.233 gallons. One ton of salt
water contains 35 cubic feet. One ton of fresh
water contains 35.9 cubic feet. A ton weight is
equal to 2240lb. (See "Decimal Equivalents" and
- The moving of the water in certain directions.
To ascertain the rate or direction of a current
when not at anchor or when becalmed, in a fog, or
out of sight of fixed objects, see "Drifting."
- A boat heavier than a gig, and used in bad
weather when the lighter boat might get swamped.
- A vessel with one mast rigged with mainsail,
foresail, jib, and topsail, as shown in the
accompanying sketch, and known as the "national
rig." A cutter's sails are termed "fore-and-aft"
sails, because they are always tacked and sheeted
in a fore-and-aft direction by the same corners in
contradistinction to sails which are tacked and
sheeted from alternate as square sails are. (Fig.
Formerly cutters carried a large square sail and
square topsail or raffee; but those are now
obsolete. A sloop as now understood differs from a
cutter in only having one headsail, properly termed
a foresail, instead of two headsails -- namely, a
jib and a foresail.
© 2000 Craig O'Donnell
May not be reproduced without my permission.
Go scan your own damn dictionary.